Aquatic adaptations are found in those plants and animals that live in water habitats: fresh water, brackish water, and sea water.
Jean-Baptiste Lamarck was among the first to put forth a theory of adaptation, offering a process by which such adaptations could have arisen.
Some adaptations may improve reproductive success of the population, but not a particular individual, such as seen in altruistic behavior in social insects.
The process of developing adaptations occurs over many generations; it is a population phenomenon involving genetics and is generally a slow process.
Desert adaptations are for the mode of life in extreme terrestrial habitats.
Volant adaptation refers to adaptations in those having a flying mode of life.
Partially water dwelling animals demonstrate amphibious adaptations with double features both for land and water (e.g., frogs, salamanders), or mostly terrestrial features and only some basic aquatic adaptations (e.g., duck).
Adaptation occurs in response to changes in the environment, life style, or relationship to other organisms.
Next, Charles Darwin came up with a more concrete explanation of adaptation that fit with observations.
Terrestrial adaptations are exhibited by the plants and animals living in land habitats.
Based on the nature of the X and Y ions, micas can be classified as di-octahedral (when Y = 4) or tri-octahedral (when Y = 6).
Behavioral adaptations are special ways a particular organism behaves to survive in its natural habitat (e.g., becoming active at night, taking a certain posture).
Desert plants (xerophytes) and animals (xerocoles) show adaptations for three challenges: getting moisture, conserving moisture, and defending oneself from biotic and abiotic factors.
Physiological adaptations are systems present in an organism that allow it to perform certain biochemical reactions (e.g., making venom, secreting slime, being able to keep a constant body temperature).
Structural adaptations are special body parts of an organism that help it to survive in its natural habitat (e.g., skin color, shape, body covering).