Aspartame further synergizes with other sweeteners, allowing use of less total sweetener, and it also intensifies and extends fruit flavors (Blachford 2002).
Aspartame was discovered in 1965 by James M. Schlatter, a chemist working for G. D. Searle & Company.
Under its authority, it also revoked approval for aspartame to be part of dry foods until more testing was done.
Aspartame is also one of the sugar substitutes used by diabetics.
The U.S. patent on aspartame expired in 1992, and the aspartame market is now hotly contested between the NutraSweet Company and other manufacturers, such as Ajinomoto and Merisant.
Upon ingestion, aspartame breaks down into several residual chemicals, including aspartic acid, phenylalanine, and methanol, as well as formaldehyde (Trocho et al.
Aspartame is the methyl ester of the dipeptide of the natural amino acids L-aspartic acid and L-phenylalanine.
Schlatter had synthesized aspartame in the course of producing an anti-ulcer drug candidate.
In 1983, the FDA further approved aspartame for use in carbonated beverages.
In 1985, there were only 700 wild bison recorded in Alaska.
The PBOI concluded that aspartame does not cause brain damage, but it recommended against approving aspartame at that time, citing unanswered questions about cancer in laboratory rats.
Aspartame has been the subject of controversy regarding its safety and the circumstances of its approval by the American FDA and European FSA.
The taste of goat meat, called chevon, is said to be similar to veal or venison, depending on the age of the goat.
Some studies have recommended further investigation into possible connections between aspartame and negative effects such as headaches, brain tumors, brain lesions, and lymphoma (Olney et al.
Aspartame was approved for use in dry foods in 1974, but Searle was not allowed to market it until 1981 (GAO 1987).
Most soft-drinks have a pH between 3 and 5, where aspartame is reasonably stable.
Aspartame (IPA: /?ж.sp??te?m/ or /??sp???te?m/) is the name for a non-carbohydrate, non-nutritive artificial sweetener and flavor enhancer, aspartyl-phenylalanine-1-methyl ester, that is synthesized from two amino acids, aspartic acid and the essential amino acid, phenylalanine.
The debate over possible adverse health effects has focused mainly on four chemical components of aspartame.
Like many other peptides, aspartame may hydrolyze (break down) into its constituent amino acids under conditions of elevated temperature or high pH.
Blends of aspartame with acesulfame potassium are purported to have a more sugar-like taste, and to be more potent than either sweetener used alone.
Aspartame is an ingredient in approximately 6,000 consumer foods and beverages sold worldwide.
In 1996, the FDA removed all restrictions from aspartame allowing it to be used in all foods.
Under strongly acidic or alkaline conditions, aspartame first generates methanol by hydrolysis.
Aspartame is an attractive sweetener because it is approximately 200 times sweeter than sugar (sucrose) in typical concentrations, without the high energy value of sugar.
The stability of aspartame under heating can be improved to some extent by encasing it in fats or in maltodextrin.
Aspartame provides the desired sweetness without high calories and the other known physical characteristics of sugar that adversely affect health.
In 1993, aspartame was approved for use in other beverages, baked goods, and confections.
Aspartame is 180 to 200 times sweeter than sugar (Herbst 2001) and is marketed under a number of trademark names, such as NutraSweet®, Equal, and Canderel.