Algae are low-input, high-yield feedstocks to produce biofuels.
Second and third generation biofuels are also called advanced biofuels.
Algae fuel, also called oilgae or third generation biofuel, is a biofuel from algae.
The most common first generation biofuels are discussed below.
Biodegradable outputs from industry, agriculture, forestry, and households can also be used for biofuel production, either using anaerobic digestion to produce biogas, or using second generation biofuels.
The drivers for biofuel research and development include rising oil prices, concerns over the potential oil peak, greenhouse gas emissions, rural development interests, and instability in the Middle East.
First-generation biofuels' are biofuels made from sugar, starch, vegetable oil, or animal fats using conventional technology.
Ethanol fuel is the most common biofuel worldwide, particularly in Brazil.
The U.N. International Biofuels Forum is formed by Brazil, China, India, South Africa, the United States and the European Commission.
Many second generation biofuels are under development such as biohydrogen, biomethanol, DMF, Bio-DME, Fischer-Tropsch diesel, biohydrogen diesel, mixed alcohols and wood diesel.
Wood and its byproducts can also be converted into biofuels such as woodgas, methanol or ethanol fuel.
The use of biofuels reduces dependence on petroleum and enhances energy security.
Second-generation biofuel production processes can use a variety of non food crops.
Before World War II, and during the high-demand wartime period, biofuels were valued as a strategic alternative to imported oil.
Biofuel is converted into carbon monoxide and energy by pyrolysis.
Biofuel is defined as fuel derived from biological materials, including materials from organisms that died relatively recently and from the metabolic by-products of living organisms.
An appealing fourth generation biofuel is based on the conversion of vegoil and biodiesel into gasoline.
Using the syngas is more efficient than direct combustion of the original biofuel; more of the energy contained in the fuel is extracted.
Humans have used solid biofuels (such as wood and other biomass) for heating and cooking since the discovery of fire.
Biodiesel is the most common biofuel in Europe.
After the war, inexpensive oil from the Middle East contributed in part to the lessened economic and geopolitical interest in biofuels.
Scientists are also working on experimental recombinant DNA genetic engineering organisms that can increase biofuel potential.
Hemp has also been proven to work as a biofuel.
Second generation (2G) biofuels use biomass to liquid technology, including cellulosic biofuels from non food crops.
The solid byproduct, digestate, can be used as a biofuel or a fertilizer.
The world leaders in biofuel development and use are Brazil, United States, France, Sweden and Germany.
A number of agricultural crops are being grown specifically for biofuel production, including corn, switchgrass, soybean, sugar beet, sugarcane, sorghum, and jatropha.
Supporters of community or civic journalism are especially critical of the purchase of media outlets by large corporations for whom journalism is not the primary business.
The use of biofuels is expanding across the globe, as they offer several advantages over fossil fuels.