Chondrification (also known as chondrogenesis) is the process in which cartilage is formed from condensed mesenchyme tissue, which differentiates into chondrocytes and begins secreting the materials that form the matrix.
Cartilage is composed mainly of two components: Water and a matrix made up of macromacules.
When the hyaline cartilage at the end of long bones such as the femur is damaged, it is often replaced with fibrocartilage, which does not withstand weight-bearing forces as well.
Chondrocytes and their precursors, known as chondroblasts, are the only cells found in cartilage.
Bioengineering techniques are being developed to generate new cartilage, using a cellular "scaffolding" material and cultured cells to grow artificial cartilage.
Much like other connective tissue, cartilage is composed of cells, fibers, and a matrix.
Cartilage cells can also give rise to benign (chondroma) tumors.
Aside from diseases, trauma and tumors can often cause head and neck cartilage defects.
Cartilage is present to keep these tubes permanently open.
Articular cartilage is responsible for the almost friction-free movement of our bones against one another.
The most common types of GAGs in cartilage are chondroitin sulfate and keratan sulfate, both of which are found in aggrecan.
Interstitial growth results in an increase of cartilage mass and occurs from within.
Cartilage is composed of collagen (type II) and elastic fibers.
The majority of the wet weight of cartilage, ranging anywhere from 65 to 80 percent, consists of water.
Hyaline cartilage is the most abundant type of cartilage.
Malignant chondrosarcomas are tumors of bone, not cartilage.
Elastic cartilage is similar to hyaline cartilage but contains elastic bundles (elastin) scattered throughout the matrix.
Cartilage is distinctive in that it has only one cell type, is avascular (lacks blood vessels), aneural (no neurons and nerves), and alymphatic (no lymphatic system).
Adult hyaline articular cartilage is progressively mineralized at the junction between cartilage and bone.
Cartilage is found in many places in the body and is classified as either "hyaline," "elastic," or "fibrous" cartilage.
Intermittent variations in the rate of advance and mineral deposition density of the mineralizing front lead to multiple tidemarks in the articular calcified cartilage.
Adult articular calcified cartilage is penetrated by vascular buds and new bone produced in the vascular space in a process similar to endochondral ossification at the physis.
Some cartilage-engineering techniques being tested are attempting to introduce cartilage-precursor cells that will differentiate into chondrocytes in the affected area.
Hyaline cartilage is found lining bones in joints (articular cartilage or, commonly, gristle) and is also present inside bones, serving as a center of ossification, or bone growth.
Chondrodystrophies are a group of diseases characterized by disturbance of growth and subsequent ossification of cartilage.
Some common diseases affecting/involving the cartilage are listed below.
Cartilage is a type of dense connective tissue found in vertebrates, as well as such invertebrates as horseshoe crabs, marine snails, and cephalopods.
The matrix component of cartilage contains collagenous fibers, and/or elastin fibers, and cells called "chondrocytes."
In adults, the cartilage of the ribs maintains its perichondrium, though it becomes absent everywhere else.
The fibrocartilage found in intervertebral disks contains more collagen compared to hyaline.
Appositional growth results in the increase of the diameter or thickness of the cartilage.
The new cells derive from the perichondrium and occur on the surface of the cartilage model.
Two types of growth can occur in cartilage: Appositional and interstitial.
The main proteoglycan in articular cartilage is aggrecan.
Fibrocartilage gives the appearance of lacking a perichondrium, but indeed it has one which cannot be seen due to type I collagen.
Cartilage serves several functions, including providing a framework upon which bone deposition can begin and supplying smooth surfaces for the movement of articulating bones.
Cartilage reconstruction techniques are often used, which transplant autologous rib cartilage to the affected area.