The tailpiece and endpin are found in the lower part of the cello.
The name cello (plural: celli, cello) is an abbreviation of the Italian violoncello, which means "little violone."
The cello has four strings referred to by their standard tuning, which is in perfect fifth intervals: the A-string (highest sounding), D-string, G-string, and C-string (lowest sounding).
The main frame of the cello is typically made from wood, although some modern celli are constructed from carbon fibre, given the strength of the material and its resistance to humidity and temperature fluctuations.
An example of a Classical era piece is Haydn's Cello Concerto #1 in C major.
Standard Romantic era repertoire includes the Cello Concerto in B minor by Antonнn Dvo?бk, Elgar's Cello Concerto in E minor, and the two sonatas by Brahms.
The cello body has a wide top bout, narrow middle formed by two C-bouts, and wide bottom bout, with the bridge and sound holes just below the middle.
More recent bands using the cello are Aerosmith, Nirvana, Oasis, and Cursive.
The scroll is a traditional part of the cello and all other members of the violin family.
In cello playing, the bow is much like the breath of a wind instrument player.
The closer to the bridge the string is bowed, the more projecting and brighter the tone, with the extreme (sul ponticello) producing a metallic, shimmery sound.
Cellists with unusually large hands may play a slightly larger than full-sized cello.
The violoncello, almost always abbreviated to cello, or 'cello (the c is pronounced as the ch in "cheese"), is a bowed stringed instrument, the lowest-sounding member of the violin family.
The celli are a critical part of orchestral music; all symphonic works involve the cello section, and many pieces require cello soli or solos.
The earliest cello manual is Michel Corrette's Mйthode, thиorique et pratique pour apprendre en peu de temps le violoncelle dans sa perfection (Paris, 1741).
The pegs are used to tune the cello by either tightening or loosening the string.
A person who plays a cello is called a cellist.
Like the other members of the violin family, the cello has four strings.
Among the most famous Baroque works for the cello are J. S. Bach's Unaccompanied Suites for Cello, commonly known as the Bach Cello Suites.
The cello can also used in fiddling, bluegrass, and folk music.
The sound post, found under the treble side of the bridge, connects the back and front of the cello.
The cello is rarely part of a group's standard lineup (though like its cousin the violin it is becoming more common in mainstream pop).
Bach, Haydn, Boccherini, Schumann, Saint-Saлns, Dvorбk and Elgar where the cello is accompanied by an orchestra.
There have been several pieces written for a cello ensemble of up to twenty or more cellists.
The sizes, names, and tunings of the cello varied widely by geography and time.
The cello is larger than the violin or the viola but smaller than the double bass.
The cello is most closely associated with European classical music.
The cello is played sitting, held between the knees of the player, the upper bout resting against the upper chest.
Heavy metal band System of a Down has also made use of the cello's rich sound.
The smaller-sized celli are identical to standard cellos in construction, range, and usage, but are simply 'scaled-down' for the benefit of children and shorter adults.
The bridge elevates the strings above the cello and transfers their vibrations to the top of the instrument and the soundpost inside (see below).
The cello has also been modified for Indian classical music by Saskia Rao-de Haas.
Overall, the modern instrument has much higher string tension than the Baroque cello, resulting in a louder, more projecting tone, with fewer overtones.
No educational works specifically devoted to the cello existed before the 18th century, and those that do exist contain little value to the performer beyond simple accounts of instrumental technique.
On a violin, spiccato bowing comes off the string, but on a cello, the wood of the bow may rise briskly up without the hair actually leaving the string.
Around 1700 Italian players popularized the cello in northern Europe, although the bass violin continued to be used for another two decades in France and England.
Carbon fiber cellos are particularly suitable for outdoor playing.
The cello reaches the lowest pitch in the traditional string quartet and is capable of covering nearly the entire range of pitches produced by the human voice.
The cello's light sound was not as suitable for church and ensemble playing, so it had to be doubled by basses or violones.
The cello is a member of the traditional string quartet.
Among these, Prokofiev's Symphonia Concertante, Britten's Cello Symphony and the concertos of Shostakovich, Lutoslawski and Dutilleux have already become part of the standard repertoire.
The cello is popular in many capacities: as a solo instrument, in chamber music, and also be used as a foundation of the modern orchestral sound.
The cello is actually part of the viola da braccio family, meaning viol of the arm, which includes, among others, the violin and viola.
A traditional cello normally has a spruce top, with maple for the back, sides, and neck.
The cello produces a deep, rich, and vibrant sound.
On many occasions, the cello section will play the melody for a brief period of time, before returning to the harmony.
Cellos made before approximately 1700 tended to be considerably larger than those made after that date, and than those made and commonly played today.
Finally, there are also several unaccompanied pieces for cello, most notably J.S.
The cello developed from the bass violin, first used by Monteverdi, which was a three-string consort instrument.
The tip of the endpin is sometimes capped with a rubber tip that prevents the cello from slipping on the floor.
Some pieces, notably the 5th of Bach's 6 Suites for Unaccompanied Cello, require an altered tuning of the strings, known as scordatura; another well-known example is Zoltбn Kodбly's Solo Cello Sonata.
The endpin, made of metal or carbon fiber, supports the cello in playing position.
Bach's Unaccompanied Suites for Cello (arguably the most important cello pieces), Zoltбn Kodбly's Sonata for Solo Cello and Britten's Unaccompanied Suites for Cello.
The cello is a complex instrument consisting of many different parts.
The bass bar, found under the bass foot of the bridge, serves to support the cello's top and distribute the vibrations.
The Beatles pioneered the use of a cello in popular music, in songs such as "Eleanor Rigby" and "Strawberry Fields Forever."
Many smaller cellists prefer to play a "seven-eighths" cello as the hand stretches in the lower positions are less demanding.
The Seattle emo/rock group Nine Months Later uses a cello in their regular lineup.
The cello is played in an upright position, held by the knees of a seated musician, resting on a spike called the endpin.
The dimensions of the cello bow are 73cm long, 3cm high (from the frog to the stick) and 1.5 cm wide.
Silenzium and Vivacello are Russian (Novosibirsk) groups playing rock and metal and having more and more popularity.
So-called "chamber pop" artists like Kronos Quartet and Margot and the Nuclear So and So's have also recently made cello common in modern alternative rock.
The neck of the cello is above the player's left shoulder.
The Twelve Cellists of the Berlin Philharmonic Orchestra (or "the Twelve" as they are commonly referred to) are a prime example of a cello choir.
The cello section, in standard orchestral seating, is located on stage left (the audience's right) in the front, opposite the first violin section.