Charlemagne was crowned Imperator Augustus in Rome on Christmas Day, 800 by Pope Leo III and is therefore regarded as the founder of the Holy Roman Empire (as Charles I).
Charlemagne certainly refused to believe the stories (mostly true) of their wild behavior.
The last insurrection of the independence-minded people occurred in 804 C.E., more than 30 years after Charlemagne's first campaign against them.
Charlemagne temporarily left the siege to deal with Adelchis, son of Desiderius, who was raising an army at Verona.
At Mass on Christmas Day (December 25), the pope crowned Charlemagne Imperator Romanorum (emperor of the Romans) in Saint Peter's Basilica.
Soon the Avar tuduns (chiefs) had surrendered, and traveled to Aachen to subject themselves to Charlemagne as vassals and Christians.
Witzin died in battle and Charlemagne avenged him by harrying the Eastphalians on the Elbe.
An Engrian rebellion followed in 796 C.E., but Charlemagne's personal presence and the presence of loyal Christian Saxons and Slavs quickly crushed it.
Much of what is known of Charlemagne's life comes from his biographer, Einhard.
Charlemagne, advised by Alcuin of York, refused to recognize the deposition.
Finally, in 962 C.E., in a radically different Europe from Charlemagne's, a new Roman Emperor was crowned in Rome by a grateful pope.
The conquest of Italy brought Charlemagne in contact with the Saracens who, at the time, controlled the Mediterranean.
Charlemagne is depicted as the champion of Christendom against Muslims and pagans.
Charlemagne applied this system to much of the European continent, and Offa's standard was voluntarily adopted by much of England.
After Charlemagne's death, continental coinage degraded and most of Europe resorted to using the continued high quality English coin until about 1100.
On the death of Pippin, the kingdom of the Franks was divided—following tradition—between Charlemagne and Carloman.
Charlemagne conquered Corsica and Sardinia at an unknown date and in 799 C.E.
Charlemagne is memorably quoted by Henry Jones (played by Sean Connery) in the film, Indiana Jones and the Last Crusade.
At present, it is impossible to be certain of the date of the birth of Charlemagne.
Charlemagne redrew the map of Europe by giving all to Louis, save the Iron Crown, which went to Pippin's (illegitimate) son Bernard of Italy.
Perhaps Pippin regarded Charlemagne as the better warrior, but Carloman may have regarded himself as the more deserving son, being the son, not of a mayor of the palace, but of a king.
Pursuing his father's reforms, Charlemagne did away with the monetary system based on the gold sou.
Hadrian sent embassies to Charlemagne in autumn requesting he enforce the policies of his father, Pippin.
Charlemagne promptly demanded what the pope had demanded and Desiderius promptly swore never to comply.
Charlemagne, being a model knight as one of the Nine Worthies, enjoyed an important afterlife in European culture.
Charlemagne went on the warpath, leading an army to Bordeaux, where he set up a camp at Fronsac.
Charlemagne thus became the one who brought renewal to the Western Roman Empire, which had expired in 476.
In 789 C.E., in recognition of his new pagan neighbors, the Slavs, Charlemagne marched an Austrasian-Saxon army across the Elbe into Abotrite territory.
The images of enthroned Charlemagne, God's representative on Earth, bear more connections to the icons of Christ in majesty than to modern (or antique) conceptions of portraiture.
Grimoald was attacked by armies of Charles or his sons many times, but Charlemagne himself never returned to the Mezzogiorno and Grimoald never was forced to surrender to Frankish suzerainty.
Charlemagne's personal appearance is not known from any contemporary portrait, but it is known rather famously from a good description by Einhard, author of the biographical Vita Caroli Magni.
The siege lasted until the spring of 774 C.E., when Charlemagne visited the pope in Rome.
Following his campaign in Italy subjugating the dukes of Friuli and Spoleto, Charlemagne returned very rapidly to Saxony in 776 C.E., where a rebellion had destroyed his fortress at Eresburg.
Martel died before he could place a new puppet king on the throne and he was succeeded by his son Pippin the Short, the father of Charlemagne.
Thrasuco, his successor, led his men to conquest over the Nordalbingians and handed their leaders over to Charlemagne, who greatly honored him.
Godfred was succeeded by his nephew Hemming, who concluded a peace with Charlemagne in late 811 C.E.
Charlemagne was now master of Italy as king of the Lombards.
Carloman's wife Gerberga (often confused by contemporary historians with Charlemagne's former wife, who probably shared her name) fled to Desiderius' court with her sons for protection.
Charlemagne was engaged in almost constant battle throughout his reign, with his legendary sword "Joyeuse" in hand.
Charlemagne organized his empire into 350 counties, each led by an appointed count.
Lupus, fearing Charlemagne, turned Hunold over in exchange for peace.
Charlemagne, as an ideal ruler, ought to be portrayed in the corresponding fashion, any contemporary would have assumed.
The booty was sent to Charlemagne at his capital, Aachen, and redistributed to all his followers and even to foreign rulers, including King Offa of Mercia.
The islands were often attacked by Saracen pirates, but the counts of Genoa and Tuscany (Boniface of Tuscany) kept them at a safe distance with large fleets until the end of Charlemagne's reign.
In 806 C.E., Charlemagne first made provision for the traditional division of the empire upon his death.
Charlemagne also directed his attention to the Slavs to the south of the Avar khaganate: the Carantanians and Slovenes.
Charlemagne also dealt diplomatically with Muslims, exchanging ambassadors with Harun al-Rashid and negotiating some degree of responsibility for the welfare of Christians and Christian sites in Palestine.
Matters of Charlemagne's reign came to a head in late 800 C.E.
Charlemagne whisked back from Saxony and defeated the duke of Friuli in battle.
Charlemagne's birthday was believed to be April 2, 742; however several factors led to reconsideration of this traditional date.
At least one of them, Bertha, had a recognized relationship, if not a marriage, with Angilbert, a member of Charlemagne's court circle.
Charlemagne even had contact with the caliphal court in Baghdad.
When Charlemagne died in 814, he was buried in his own Cathedral at Aachen.
Charlemagne himself was accorded sainthood inside the Holy Roman Empire after the twelfth century.
Charlemagne and his uncle Bernhard, son of Charles Martel crossed the Alps in 773 C.E.
Charlemagne was the eldest child of Pippin the Short (714 C.E.
Charlemagne wore the traditional, inconspicuous, and distinctly non-aristocratic costume of the Frankish people.
Charlemagne met Carloman, but Carloman refused to participate and returned to Burgundy.
In 788 C.E., Charlemagne turned his attention to Bavaria.
In 787 C.E., Charlemagne directed his attention towards Benevento, where Arechis was reigning independently.
Charlemagne repudiated his wife and quickly married another, a Swabian named Hildegard of Savoy.
Carolingian minuscule was created partly under the patronage of Charlemagne.
In 813, Charlemagne called Louis, his only surviving legitimate son, to his court.
Charlemagne received the Istrian peninsula and in 812 C.E.
The embassies both met at Thionville and Charlemagne upheld the pope's side.