In 1837, the Peru-Bolivian Confederation was also created, but it was dissolved two years later due to Chilean military intervention.
The Cologne Cathedral suffered 14 hits by bombs during World War II.
From 260 to 271 Cologne was the capital of the Gallic Empire under Postumus, Marius, and Victorinus.
Cologne became a Free Imperial City, a status that was officially recognized in 1475.
Eau de Cologne, a spirit-citrus perfume launched in Cologne in 1709, by Giovanni Maria Farina (1685-1766), an Italian perfumer, has continued to be manufactured in the city.
Maternus, who was elected as bishop in 313, was the first known bishop of Cologne.
Cologne had two fortified belts surrounding the city, opposing the French and Belgian fortresses of Verdun and Liиge.
The era of the Weimar Republic (1919–1933) brought benefits to Cologne, as Adenauer invested in public housing, created large parks, in particular the two "Grьngьrtel" (green belts) on the former fortified areas.
By World War I (1914-1918), Cologne had grown to 700,000 inhabitants.
By the end of the war, the population of Cologne was reduced by 95 percent, mainly because of a massive evacuation to rural areas.
Cologne has dealt with severe air pollution, has helped bring the dead Rhine River back to life, and retains the seventh highest per capita GDP in Germany.
Cologne covers an area of 156 square miles (405 square kilometers), with 85 districts divided into nine city areas.
FC Kцln, which competes in the Bundesliga, and American football team Cologne Centurions which played in the now defunct NFL Europa.
Cologne is the center of an urban area of around two million inhabitants, including the neighboring cities of Bonn, Hьrth, Leverkusen, and Bergisch-Gladbach.
Cologne also preserves the relics of Saint Ursula and Albertus Magnus.
The city also hosts the Cologne Comedy Festival, which is considered to be the largest comedy festival in mainland Europe.
Cologne became a center of medieval pilgrimage, when Archbishop Rainald of Dassel gave the relics of the Three Wise Men, captured from Milan, to Cologne's cathedral in 1164.
Due to the free status of Cologne, the archbishops usually were not allowed to enter the city.
Cologne was part of the French Dйpartement Roer (named after the River Roer, German: Rur) with Aachen (Aix-la-Chapelle) as its capital.
Tension between the Roman Catholic Rhineland and the overwhelmingly Protestant Prussian state repeatedly escalated with Cologne being in the focus of the conflict.
The mayor of Cologne, who was the future West German chancellor Konrad Adenauer (1876-1967), respected the British for withstanding French ambitions for a permanent occupation of the Rhineland.
Great Britain occupied Cologne as a condition of the Treaty of Versailles from the end of World War I until 1926.
Following the second world war Cologne was reconstructed beginning in 1946 through the Marshall Plan and then public and private initiatives to become one of the wealthiest cities in Germany.
From 962 to 1517, the Archbishop of Cologne was a prince-elector and an ecclesiastical elector of the Holy Roman Empire, and ruled a large temporal domain.
Cologne is located close to where the River Rhine enters the North German Plain, about 21 miles (34km) northwest of Bonn, and 25 miles (40 km) southeast of Dьsseldorf.
Cologne's elected council is headed by a mayor and three deputy mayors.
Hundreds of thousands of visitors flock to Cologne during this time.
Cologne is well-known for the annual reggae summerjam, the largest of its kind in Europe, and the lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender/transsexual festival Christopher Street Day.
Consideration of the different types of logic explains that logic is not studied in a vacuum.
During the night of May 31, 1942, Cologne was the site of "Operation Millennium," the first 1,000-bomber raid by the Royal Air Force.
The city also hosts the hockey team Kцlner Haie (Cologne Sharks), the basketball team Kцln 99ers, and the annual Cologne Marathon.
Within Germany, Cologne is known as an important media center, with several radio and television stations.
The archbishops of Cologne repeatedly challenged and threatened the free status of Cologne during the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries.
Cologne carnival, one of the largest street festivals in Europe, begins annually on November 11, at 11:11, and continues until Ash Wednesday.
The Cologne Cathedral, one of the best-known architectural monuments in Germany and the city's most famous landmark, was named a World Heritage Site in 1996.
Cologne’s location at the intersection of the Rhine River, used for water-borne transport, and an east-west trade route was the basis of the city's economic importance.
Cologne is the administrative center of one of the five administrative districts of North Rhine-Westphalia, which is one of Germany's 16 states, known in German as Lдnder.
About 31.4 percent of the population had migrated there, and 17.2 percent of Cologne's population was non-German.
Three great Roman Catholic scholars and theologians—Albertus Magnus, Thomas Aquinas, and John Duns Scotus—taught at Cologne.
Cologne has pavement-edge cycle lanes linked by cycle priority crossings.
Cologne was the first city in Germany with a tax specifically for prostitution.
Cologne also has teacher-training colleges, a sports school, as well as music, engineering, administration, and other professional colleges.
The name Cologne derives from the German name Kцln, which in turn comes from the Latin word Colonia from the Roman name of the city—Colonia Claudia Ara Agrippinensium.
By that time, all of Cologne's pre-war Jewish population of 20,000 had been displaced.
In 310 Emperor Constantine I ordered a bridge built over the Rhine at Cologne.
Following the defeat of Napoleon Cologne became part of Prussia.
After World War I, during which several minor air raids had targeted the city, British forces occupied Cologne until 1926.
Cologne is the fourth-largest city in Germany in terms of population after Berlin, Hamburg and Munich.
Cologne became a member of the trading guild alliance Hanseatic League in the thirteenth century and became a Free Imperial City in 1475.
The city's famous Cologne Cathedral (Kцlner Dom) is the seat of the Roman Catholic Archbishop of Cologne.
In 1815, at the Congress of Vienna, Cologne was made part of the Kingdom of Prussia, beginning a new era of prosperity with industry and a railway.
The city's Trade Fair Grounds are host to a number of trade shows such as the Art Cologne Fair, the International Furniture Fair (IMM) and the Photokina.
Reconstruction of Cologne after World War II followed the style of the 1950s.
Cologne's international airport is Cologne Bonn Airport, also called Konrad Adenauer Airport.
Cologne has been a banking center since the Middle Ages, and has one of the world’s oldest stock exchanges.
Cologne's position on the river Rhine, at the intersection of east and west trade routes, was the basis of the city's growth.
The free city of Cologne must not be confused with the Archbishopric of Cologne which was a state of its own within the Holy Roman Empire.
Despite Cologne's status as the largest city in the region, nearby Dьsseldorf was chosen as the political capital of the Federal State North Rhine-Westphalia.
Cologne (Kцln in German) is Germany's fourth-largest city after Berlin, Hamburg and Munich.