Criminology is an interdisciplinary field in the social sciences, drawing especially on the research of sociologists and psychologists, as well as on writings in law.
Criminology is the scientific study of crime as an individual and social phenomenon.
Marxist criminology or Conflict criminology parallels the work of functionalism, which focuses on what produces stability and continuity in society, but, unlike the functionalists, it adopts a predefined political philosophy.
The Classical School in criminology is usually a reference to the eighteenth century work during the Enlightenment by the utilitarian and social contract philosophers Jeremy Bentham and Cesare Beccaria.
A large number of undergraduate and postgraduate criminology degree programs have developed around the world.
According to PRC figures, Tibet's GDP in 2001 was 13.9 billion yuan (US$1.8-billion).
Environmental criminology focuses on criminal patterns within particular built environments and analyzes the impacts of these external variables on people’s cognitive behavior.
In 1885, Italian law professor Raffaele Garofalo coined the term "criminology" (in Italian, criminologia) to refer to the study of crime and criminal behavior.
Environmental criminology would be of little interest, either to scholars or those concerned with criminal policy, if the geographical distribution of offences, or of victimization or offender residence, were random.
Hence, environmental criminology and other sub-schools study the spatial distribution of crimes and offenders.
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