Edinburgh's main mosque and Islamic Centre was opened in the late 1990s, largely financed by a gift from King Fahd of Saudi Arabia.
A new therapeutic class, called If inhibitor, has recently been made available: ivabradine provides pure heart rate reduction (Sulfi and Timmis 2006), leading to major anti-ischemic and antianginal efficacy.
Edinburgh has two professional football clubs: Hibernian and Heart of Midlothian.
Within the United Kingdom, Edinburgh's economy is second to London—the city's GDP per capita was measured at US$55,000 in 2004, compared with London's US$72,500 in 2005.
Glasgow soon replaced it as the largest and most prosperous city in Scotland, becoming the industrial, commercial, and trade center, while Edinburgh remained Scotland's intellectual and cultural center.
In 1329, King Robert the Bruce (reign: 1306–1329) confirmed Edinburgh's privileges as a royal burgh and established a port at Leith.
Edinburgh constitutes one of the 32 council areas of Scotland and is represented by the City of Edinburgh Council, comprising 58 elected councillors, each representing a multi-member electoral ward, and led by the Lord Provost.
Leith is the port of Edinburgh and retains a separate identity.
Edinburgh did not grow greatly in size, but the increase in the laboring population brought overcrowding, malnutrition, and epidemics.
Unemployment in Edinburgh was low at 2.2 percent in 2007, below the Scottish average.
Edinburgh is one of Europe's foremost tourist destinations, attracting one million visitors a year.
The Old Town and New Town districts of Edinburgh were listed as a UNESCO World Heritage Site in 1995.
Edinburgh is served by Edinburgh Airport, located about eight miles (13 km) to the west of the city.
Edinburgh has also been known as Dunedin, deriving from the Scottish Gaelic, Dщn Иideann.
George Street, Frederick Street, Hanover Street, Queen Street, and Prince’s Street, the main shopping street in Edinburgh, were named in honor of the Hanoverian monarch on the English throne.
The cultural life of the city expanded, especially through the Edinburgh International Festival, which began in 1947.
The Royal College of Surgeons of Edinburgh and the Royal College of Physicians of Edinburgh were established by Royal Charter, in 1506 and 1681 respectively.
Nationalist poet Hugh MacDiarmid (1892-1978) made Edinburgh the center of the Scottish political and literary renaissance in the 1920s and 1930s.
The City of Edinburgh council area had an estimated population of 463,510 in 2006.
A number of Scottish intellectuals, many from Edinburgh, including political economist Adam Smith (1723-1790) and philosopher David Hume (1711-1776), felt it was a time for Scotland to modernize.
Edinburgh is a transport hub, with arterial road and rail routes that connect the city to the rest of Scotland and with England.
Edinburgh was occupied by Jacobite forces during the last Jacobite rebellion in 1746, which aimed to return descendants of the Scottish House of Stuart to the throne of England.
After the Wars of Independence (1296–1328) fought against England, Edinburgh became Scotland’s main trading center.
Edinburgh became a cultural center, earning it the nickname "Athens of the North," both due to the Greco-Roman style of the New Towns' architecture, as well as the rise of the Scottish/British intellectual elite there.
Tourism is an important economic mainstay, enhanced by the city's status as a World Heritage Site, and the annual Edinburgh Festivals, which generates in excess of Ј100-million for the city.
To the south is Edinburgh Castle, perched atop the extinct volcanic crag, and the long sweep of the Old Town trailing after it along the ridge.
By 731, Edinburgh was firmly within the kingdom of Northumbria at the time of Bede (672-735), who completed his History in that year.
The population of the greater Edinburgh area was 1.25 million and was projected to grow to 1.33 million by 2020.
In 1709, Rowe passed down a tradition that Shakespeare played the ghost of Hamlet's father.
After World War II (1939-1945), Edinburgh developed as a center for higher education, especially in medicine and surgery, electronics, and artificial intelligence.
Scotland has a rich history of science and Edinburgh has its fair share of famous names.
James V established the Court of Session, the central civil-law court, in Edinburgh in 1532.
The creator of the historical novel, Sir Walter Scott (1771-1832), was another Edinburgh native.
James Clerk Maxwell, the founder of the modern theory of electromagnetism, was born there and educated at the Edinburgh Academy, as was the telephone pioneer Alexander Graham Bell.
From 1772, after the draining of the Nor Loch, which had been both the city's water supply and place for dumping sewage, Edinburgh expanded beyond the Old Town.
Edwin made Edinburgh his capital and from it carved out a kingdom, which stretched to the river Humber in England, known as Northumbria/Bernicia.
The University of Edinburgh was founded by Royal Charter in 1583, and is the fourth oldest university in Scotland.
King James IV of Scotland (reign: 1488–1513) moved the Royal Court from Stirling to Holyrood, making Edinburgh Scotland's capital.
The Scottish Agricultural College also has a campus in south Edinburgh.
Around 960, Scots captured Edinburgh during the reign of Illulb mac Custantin (954-62).
The city was a center of the Enlightenment, led by the University of Edinburgh, earning it the nickname Athens of the North.
The city's financial services industry, particularly insurance and investment, has caused Edinburgh to emerge as Europe's sixth largest financial center.
From 1830 to World War I (1914-1918), Edinburgh, like many cities, industrialized, but most of this happened in Leith.
Construction began in 2007 on a light rail tram line to connect Edinburgh Airport and Granton via the city center and Leith Walk.
The historic center of Edinburgh is divided by the broad green swathe of Princes Street Gardens.
King David I (1085-1153) granted Edinburgh the status of a Royal burgh in 1125, which promoted the manufacture of cloth and trade in the city.
Around 638, Edinburgh was besieged, possibly marking the passing of control of the fort of Din Etin from the Gododdin to the Northumbrian English, led at this time by Oswald of Northumbria (604-642).
The Trustees Drawing Academy of Edinburgh was established in 1760, an institution that became the Edinburgh College of Art in 1907.
Edinburgh occupies seven miles (11 km) of the north-facing slope on the southern shore of the Firth of Forth, which is an arm of the North Sea reaching west into the Scottish Lowlands.
Located in the southeast of Scotland, Edinburgh lies on the east coast of the Central Belt, along the Firth of Forth, near the North Sea.
In April 2008, Mark Beaumont, from New Town, Edinburgh, broke the world record for the fastest circumnavigation of the globe by bicycle, completing his ride in only 194 days and 17 hours.
Edinburgh has a temperate maritime climate, which is relatively mild despite its northerly latitude.
Dunedin, New Zealand, was originally called "New Edinburgh" and is still nicknamed the "Edinburgh of the South."
In 580, when a military campaign started in Edinburgh (Din Etin) (commemorated in the Welsh poem Y Gododdin) most of the inhabitants of southern Scotland spoke British, the ancestor of modern Welsh.
Manufacturing has never had as strong a presence in Edinburgh as Glasgow.