The baby soon died and Humayun thought himself strong enough to assume power.
Nasiruddin Humayun (Persian: ????????? ??????) (March 6, 1508 – February 22, 1556), the second Mughal Emperor, ruled modern Afghanistan, Pakistan, and parts of northern India from 1530–1540 and again from 1555–1556.
Humayun's sister, Gulbadan Begum, portrayed him in his biography, the "Hum?y?n-n?ma," as extraordinarily lenient, constantly forgiving acts deliberately aimed at angering him.
Kamran had become a detested leader and, as Humayun's Persian army approached the city, hundreds of Kamran's troops changed sides, flocking to join Humayun and swelling his ranks.
The Gur-e Amir in Samarkand provided the ultimate model for Humayun's tomb, the best-known as a precursor to the Taj Mahal in style.
Many urged Humayun to make an example of Kamran and kill him.
The battle once again saw Humayun make some tactical errors, his army resoundingly defeated.
Humayun's greatest architectural creation, the Din-Panah (Refuge of Religion) citadel at Delhi, had been destroyed by Sher Shah.
When he reached Sirhind, Humayun sent an ambassador carrying the message; "I have left you the whole of Hindustan (i.e., the lands to the East of Punjab, comprising most of the Ganges Valley).
Humayun fled to the refuge of the Safavid Empire in Iran, marching with forty men and his wife and her companion through mountains and valleys.
Humayun refused, citing the last words of his father, Babur "Do nothing against your brothers, even though they may deserve it.
Sikander Suri offered the only major battle against Humayun's armies in Sirhind, where Bairam Khan employed a tactic whereby he engaged his enemy in open battle, but then retreated quickly in apparent fear.
Upon Babur's death, Humayun's territories proved the least secure.
Sher Shah withdrew to the east, but Humayun held back: instead he "shut himself up for a considerable time in his Harem, and indulged himself in every kind of luxury.
Humayun's other brother, Kamran, marched from his territories in the Punjab, ostensibly to aid Humayun.
Humayun selected the date after consulting his astrolabe to check the location of the planets.
All the wells had been filled with sand by the nearby inhabitants after Humayun's troops had killed several cows (a sacred animal to the Hindus), leaving them with nothing but berries to eat.
Later in life Humayun himself spoke in Persian verse more often than not.
On July 23, 1555 Humayun, once again, sat on Babur's throne in Delhi.
Humayun expected aid from the Amir of Sindh, whom he had appointed and who owed him his allegiance.
Humayun's troops had been delayed while trying to take Chunar, a fort occupied by Sher Shah's son, to protect his troops from an attack from the rear.
shows that people with high-normal blood pressure who significantly reduced the amount of salt in their diet decreased their chances of developing cardiovascular disease by 25 percent over the following 10 to 15 years.
When Humayun's brother, Kamran, offered to cede Kandahar to the Persians in exchange for Humayun, dead or alive, the Shah refused.
Humayun became aware that the Sultan of Gujarat planned an assault on the Mughal territories with Portuguese aid.
Humayun expressed amazement at their work and asked if they would work for him if he regained the sovereignty of Hindustan: they agreed.
Humayun loved astrology and astronomy and built observatories that lasted centuries.
Shah Tahmasp, unlike Humayun's own family, actually welcomed the Mughal, and treated him as a royal visitor.
Humayun accepted and, in return for three hundred Camels (mostly wild) and two thousand loads of grain, he set off to join his brothers in Kandahar, crossing the Indus on July 11, 1543.
Humayun's tomb designates a complex of buildings of Mughal architecture located Nizamuddin east, New Delhi.
Sher Shah met Humayun in battle on the banks of the Ganges, near Benares, in Chausa.
When Humayun returned to Agra, he found that all three of his brothers present.
The Humayun Tomb Complex, a UNESCO World Heritage Site, encompasses the main tomb of Emperor Humayun as well as numerous other structures, providing the first example Mughal architecture in India.
Instead the Shah threw a party for Humayun, with three hundred tents, an imperial Persian carpet, twelve musical bands and "meat of all kinds."
The fort of Rohtas, built between 1541 to 1543 by Sher Shah Sur to crush the Gakhars loyal to Humayun, surrendered without a shot by a traitorous commander.
Kabul served as the capital of the empire of Humayun's brother Kamran Mirza, far from willing to hand over any of his territories to his brother.
Humayun lost his Indian territories to the Afghan Sultan, Sher Shah Suri, and regained them, only with Persian aid, ten years later.
On February 22, 1556, Humayun, his arms full of books, descended the staircase from his library when the Muezzin announced the Ezan (the call to prayer).
Some have argued that Humayun forgave from a weak position, unable to inflict punishment on his brothers in any case.
A wise move, given Humayun's own record of military ineptitude, that turned out to be prescient, as Bairam proved himself one of the world's great legendary tacticians.
When Humayun sent the grand Mufti, Sheikh Buhlul, to reason with him, he executed the Sheikh.
Humayun once again not only pardoned his brothers for plotting against him, but even forgave Hindal for his outright betrayal.
Humayun's Tomb, built by his widow after his death, serves as the best reminder of his rule.
Humayun decided that it would be wise to withdraw still further.
Humayun's Tomb, considered an important milestone in the history of Mughal architecture.
Humayun imported Persian methods of governance into North India during his reign.
Humayun placed the army under the able leadership of Bairam Khan.
Shortly after Humayun had marched on Gujarat, Sher Shah saw an opportunity to wrest control of Agra from the Mughals.
AKTC has undertaken the restoration at Babur's tomb, the resting place of Humayun's father in Kabul.
When Humayun received word of the approaching hostile army, he decided against facing them and, instead, sought refuge elsewhere.
Subsequently, in a relatively short time, Humayun expanded the Empire further, leaving a substantial legacy for his son, Akbar the Great (Akbar-e-Azam).
Instead of pressing his attack and going after the enemy, Humayun ceased the campaign and began to enjoy life in his new forts.
During the first five years of Humayun's reign, those two rulers quietly extended their rule, although Sultan Bahadur faced pressure in the east from sporadic conflicts with the Portuguese.
Hamida Banu Begum, Humayun's widow, ordered the construction of the tomb of Humayun in 1562 C.E.
Humayun now prepared to take Kabul, ruled by his brother Kamran.
When Hindal withdrew from protecting the rear of Humayun's troops, Sher Shah's troop quickly reclaimed those positions, leaving Humayun surrounded.
Babur had ruled only four years; the umarah (nobles) divided on whether Humayun represented the rightful ruler.
Shah asked only that, if Humayun's forces proved victorious, Kandahar would be his.
That posed a serious threat to the entire family, but still Humayun and Kamran squabbled over how to proceed.
The two rulers struck a bargain to save face: Humayun's troops would charge those of Sher Shah whose forces then retreat in feigned fear.
Humayun later described that incident as the lowest point in his life.
Humayun decided to engage in diplomacy using Muhammad Aziz as ambassador.
Humayun agreed to allow Sher Shah to rule over Bengal and Bihar, but only as provinces granted to him by Humayun as Emperor; that fell short of outright sovereignty for Sher Shah.