Neonatal jaundice is a risk factor for hearing loss (O'Keefe 2001).
Post-hepatic jaundice, also called obstructive jaundice, is caused by an interruption to the drainage of bile in the biliary system; that is, the soluble bilirubin fails to reach the intestines after leaving the liver.
Obstructive jaundice frequently is treated with a surgical procedure (Polsdorfer 2002).
Jaundice in newborns is important to measure repeatedly and treat if it threatens to get too high, as the insoluble bilirubin can get into the brain.
Jaundice comes from the French word jaune, meaning yellow.
Pre-hepatic jaundice is caused by anything that results in an increased rate of hemolysis (breakdown of red blood cells), resulting in diseases known as hemolytic disorders.
No one test can differentiate between various classifications of jaundice.
The causes of jaundice can be divided into three categories based on where the condition starts relative to the liver: Pre-hepatic (before the liver), heapatic (in the liver), and post-hepatic (after the liver).
Alexander Pope, in "An Essay on Criticism" (1711), wrote: "All seems infected that the infected spy, As all looks yellow to the jaundiced eye" (Rogers 1985).
Jaundice itself is not a disease, but rather a sign of one of many possible underlying pathological processes that occurs at some point along the normal physiological pathway of the metabolism of bilirubin.
By extension, the jaundiced eye came to mean a prejudiced view, usually rather negative or critical.
When a pathological process interferes with the normal functioning of the metabolism and excretion of bilirubin just described, jaundice may be the result.
Most patients presenting with jaundice will have various predictable patterns of liver panel abnormalities, though significant variation does exist.
The appearance of the patient's skin complexion and eyes can help in the diagnosis of jaundice.
A rare cause of obstructive jaundice is Mirizzi's syndrome.
Certain genetic diseases, such as sickle cell anemia, spherocytosis, and glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency can lead to increased red cell lysis and therefore hemolytic jaundice.
Jaundice allows the patient and doctor to recognize that there is an underlying problem that needs to be addressed.
Hemolytic disorders resulting in jaundice may not be treated specifically for the jaundice, other than the underlying condition.
One of the first tissues to change color as bilirubin levels rise in jaundice is the conjunctiva of the eye, a condition sometimes referred to as scleral icterus.
The glory of a Roman North Africa did not last however, and a string of incompetent military leaders left the region open to invasion from the Germanic barbarian tribe, the Vandals.
The second step is distinguishing from biliary (cholestatic) or liver (hepatic) causes of jaundice and altered lab results.
Neonatal jaundice is usually harmless: This condition is often seen in infants around the second day after birth, lasting until day 8 in normal births, or to around day 14 in premature births.
Serum bilirubin normally drops to a low level without any intervention required: the jaundice is presumably a consequence of metabolic and physiological adjustments after birth.
Defects in bilirubin metabolism also present as jaundice.
Jaundice is sign of an underlying condition whereby the normal harmony of the body is disrupted.