The protocol also established the Kuwait-Saudi Arabia Neutral Zone, an area of about 2000 square miles (5180 square kilometers) adjoining Kuwait's southern border.
Kuwait’s road system is well developed by regional standards.
By the late 1870s, the Ottomans were bankrupt, and when the European banks took control of the Ottoman budget in 1881, additional income was required from Kuwait and the Arabian Peninsula.
Kuwait's first contact with Britain occurred in 1775 when plague, then the Persians, struck Basra and the British East India Company made arrangements to have the Persian Gulf-Aleppo Mail Service diverted through Kuwait.
Traditional Kuwaiti music was performed by women in private.
A typical Kuwait merchant house was built in the Ottoman style, with projecting wooden balconies enclosed with wooden screens or mashrabiya and covered wooden doorways.
Before 2005, only 15 percent of the Kuwaiti population was allowed to vote, with all women, people of less than 30 years' citizenship, and members of the armed forces excluded.
During their retreat, the Iraqi armed forces set fire to numerous Kuwaiti oil wells or released oil from those wells into the gulf.
Kuwait’s traditional building materials were rubble stone covered with thick mud plaster, mud brick, and sometimes cora stone.
Kuwait is known as the center, along with Bahrain for sawt, a bluesy style of music made popular in the 1970s by Shadi al Khaleej.
The ruling family is at the top of the social hierarchy, followed by the old Kuwaiti merchant families.
The National Assembly of Kuwait is a landmark building, designed by Danish architect Jшrn Utzon and completed in 1972.
The Kuwaiti Government-in-exile depended upon its $100-billion in overseas investments during the Iraqi occupation in order to help pay for the reconstruction.
Kuwait includes within its territory nine Persian Gulf islands, two of which, Bubiyan (the largest) and Warbah, are largely uninhabited but strategically important.
The Central Bank of Kuwait in the capital city issues Kuwait’s currency, the Kuwaiti dinar, which had in 2007 the highest valued currency unit in the world.
The island of Faylakah, at the mouth of Kuwait Bay, is densely inhabited.
Over the last decade of satellite TV stations, there has been a stream of Kuwaiti Pop Bands that have been successful in reaching other Arab countries with their unique style of pop.
Kuwaitis take some pride in the rarity of political violence in their country.
The Bani Khalid, who were the rulers of the eastern province of Saudi Arabia, controlled Kuwait for about a century.
In 2005 Kuwait ranked 85th in the Reporters Without Borders world survey of the freedom of the press.
Kuwait paid Iraq to protect it from what it perceived as a threat posed by Iran.
Kuwait City, the capital, had in 2005 an estimated population of 32,500 within city limits and 2.38 million in the metropolitan area.
Kuwait's system of government is marked by an unusually wide involvement of members of the ruling family in state posts.
During the seven month occupation by Iraq, the Emir, the government, and many Kuwaitis took refuge in Saudi Arabia or other nations.
Saddam Hussein deposed the monarchy and installed a new Kuwaiti governor, his cousin, Ali Al-Majid, also known as "Chemical Ali" for his role in gassing Kurdish civilians in Halabja in 1988.
The wealth of Kuwait is based primarily on oil and capital reserves, and the Iraqi occupation severely damaged both.
Once a small gulf shaikhdom known locally as a center for pearl–diving and boat construction, Kuwait came to international prominence in the post-World War II era largely because of its enormous oil revenues.
After World War I, the Ottoman Empire was defeated and the British invalidated the Anglo-Ottoman Convention, declaring Kuwait to be an "independent sheikhdom under British protection.
Kuwait has a reputation for being the central musical influence of the Gulf Cooperation Council countries, with only the United Arab Emirates having a line of talents.
Mubarak apologized and the three businessmen returned to Kuwait.
Their residence in the Arabian Desert was short-lived, so until the eighteenth century, Kuwait was a territory of shifting communities.
Kuwait lacks water and has practically no arable land, thus preventing development of agriculture.
Kuwaitis greet by shaking hands and kissing cheeks.
Kuwait has a civil law system, with Islamic law to cover personal matters.
Kuwait's traditional music were recorded and archived, but the archives were destroyed in the Gulf War.
The judiciary in Kuwait is an independent body.
The Bani Utub traded in horses, wood, spices, coffee, dates and especially pearls; Kuwait was located within close sail of the pearl banks that stretched down the Persian Gulf coast.
Kuwait was allied with Iraq during the Iran-Iraq War (1980-88).
In 1911 Mubarak raised the taxes, prompting three wealthy businessmen to protest by diverting trade to Bahrain, hurting the Kuwaiti economy.
Kuwait consists mostly of desert and little difference in altitude.
Despite regular relatively free elections to the national assembly, Kuwait is not a democracy by the usual definition of the term because the prime minister is not responsible to parliament.
The best known example of Kuwaiti modern architecture is the water towers, consisting of tall pointed conical spires above a spherical water tank.
The labor force totals 2,335,648 people, with only about two fifths of this number equaling the citizens that are of Kuwaiti Nationality.
On April 19, 1923, the British government confirmed that it recognized the outer green line of the Anglo-Ottoman Convention as the border between Iraq and Kuwait.
In 60 years, successive Kuwaiti governments have invested oil revenues into building a prosperous, modern society.
Food plays a large part in Kuwaiti culture.
The oldest mosques in Kuwait are the Alkhamis Mosque, built between 1772–1773 and the Abd AlRazzag Mosque built in 1797.
Kuwait's population was estimated at 3.1 million people, counting both locals and foreigners, in 2006.
The 1920s and 1930s saw the collapse of the pearl industry and with it Kuwait's economy.
Former Bedouins, Arabian Desert nomads, who settled in Kuwait when the oil industry started, are placed in the middle, followed by Arabs from neighboring countries.
In 1766, the al-Khalifa and, soon after, the al-Jalahima, left Kuwait en masse for Zubara in Qatar.
Shaped roughly like a triangle, Kuwait borders the Persian Gulf to the east, with 121 miles (195 kilometers) of coast.
On August 2, 1990, Kuwait was invaded and annexed by Iraq.
An American-led coalition of 34 nations fought the Persian Gulf War to remove Iraqi forces from Kuwait.
In 1712, North Carolina became a separate colony.
Kuwait Towers is also considered Kuwait’s most prominent architectural achievement.
Both the extensive library system at Kuwait University and the collection at Kuwait National Museum were heavily damaged and looted during the Iraqi occupation in the 1991 Gulf War.
The State of Kuwait (Arabic: ?????? ) is a small constitutional monarchy on the coast of the Persian Gulf, enclosed by Saudi Arabia to the south and Iraq to the north.
Another city, Jahrah, is a 30-minute drive northwest of Kuwait City.
Kuwait became one of the world's poorest countries and became even more dependent on Britain for protection.
Before the Persian Gulf War, Kuwait maintained a small military force consisting of army, navy, and air force and national guard units.
Ibn Saud noted that the convention had never been ratified and that Kuwait was not effectively in control of the disputed territory.
From the Bani Utub descended the Al-Sabah family, which went on to rule Kuwait, and the Al Khalifa family, which went on to rule Bahrain.
A power vacuum sharpened conflict between Kuwait and Najd.
Kuwait has not accepted compulsory International Court of Justice jurisdiction.
The dewaniya is a fundamental part of Kuwaiti life.
Kuwait's official language is Arabic, though roughly half the country speaks the language primarily.
Shaikh Salim Al-Mubarak Al-Sabah insisted that Kuwait was in full control of all territory out to a radius of 87 miles (140km) from the capital.
All newspapers in Kuwait were established with an "Amiri decree."
Kuwait is a small, relatively open economy with proven crude oil reserves of about 96 billion barrels (15 kmі), or about 10 percent of world reserves.
Summers (April to October) are extremely hot and dry with temperatures exceeding 124°F (51°C) in Kuwait City several times during the hottest months of June, July and August.
A court order closed a leading Kuwaiti news paper AlWatan for three days, and a magazine editor was sent to jail for criticizing government actions.
Modern architecture in Kuwait is mostly in the international style, although there are several buildings that demonstrate a relationship with Islamic architecture.
Believing that plump children are healthy, Kuwaitis eat a rich diet, and do not exercise as they used to.
The Emir and the government managed Kuwaiti affairs from Saudi Arabia, London, and elsewhere during the period, relying on substantial Kuwaiti investments available outside Kuwait for funding and war-related expenses.
Kuwait is divided into six governorates: Al Ahmadi, Al Farwaniyah, Al Asimah, Al Jahra, Hawalli, and Mubarak Al-Kabeer.
In 1941, on the same day as the Germany Germans invasion of Russia (22 June), the British took control of Iraq and Kuwait.
Racially speaking, Kuwaitis are described usually as “white” or “brown” (“beedh” or “sumur” respectively).
Kuwait has been ruled by the al-Sabah dynasty since approximately 1752.
Every Kuwait person is categorized into one of three classes, and each person’s class is recorded on his or her passport.
Iraq threatened to invade Kuwait but was deterred by the British, who flew in troops.
Kuwait imposes the death penalty for murder and drug trafficking.
During the 1970s, Kuwait benefited from the dramatic rise in oil prices, which Kuwait actively promoted through its membership in the Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC).
After the Gulf War of 1990-1991, Kuwait expelled more than 400,000 Palestinian refugees (after the Palestinian Liberation Organization allied itself with Iraq during its invasion of Kuwait).
First class Kuwaitis were those who arrived before 1900, before oil wealth and when Kuwait was poor, and make up between five and 15 percent of the population.
Following Kuwait's liberation in 1991, the island was converted to a military base from which civilians are barred.
An important period in Kuwait's political, social and economic development was the Souk Al-Manakh stock market crash of 1982.
Kuwait's parliament is the strongest of those found in the monarchies of the gulf.
The Gulf University for Science and Technology, the first private university in Kuwait, was established in 2002, has two campuses in Hawalli, and was to open its third.
The tribe possibly formed when a group of different tribal groups migrated from Najd to Kuwait on the Persian Gulf coast sometime in the late seventeenth century.
Gross Domestic Product, GDP, for 2005 was $53.31-billion, giving Kuwait a per-capita GDP of $22,800.
Oil revenues have allowed Kuwait to build an extensive educational system.
The traditional food of Kuwait known as mach boos consists of mutton, chicken, or fish placed over or mixed in a large mess of well-cooked and prepared rice, closely resembling the Indian biryani.
Having amassed great wealth, Kuwait was the first of the Persian Gulf Arab states to declare independence—on June 19, 1961.
An international airport is located in the southern outskirts of the Kuwait city metropolitan area.
Certain buildings, including Kuwait International Airport, were severely damaged.
Midhat Pasha, the governor of Iraq, demanded that Kuwait submit to Ottoman rule.
Nonetheless, Kuwaitis enjoy more civil and political freedoms than the citizens of most non-democratic states.
Nevertheless, Kuwait has retained a vital music industry, both long before the war and after.
In early 1990 Iraq was accusing Kuwait of stealing Iraqi petroleum through slant drilling, although some Iraqi sources indicated Saddam Hussein's decision to attack Kuwait was made a few months before the actual invasion.