Paints that were pigmented with manganese dioxide (manganese(IV) oxide) can be traced back 17,000 years.
Manganese is very brittle, fusible with difficulty, but easily oxidized.
At low concentrations, manganese is used to decolorize glass, as it removes the greenish tinge generated by the presence of iron; at higher concentrations, it is used to make violet-colored glass.
Among its other uses, manganese is a key component of low-cost stainless steel formulations and certain widely used aluminum alloys.
Manganese combines with various other elements in different proportions.
Manganese dioxide, a component of natural umber, is useful as a black-brown pigment in paint.
Manganese compounds can color glass an amethyst color, and are responsible for the color of true amethyst.
In chemistry, manganese is considered a transition metal.
On rare occasions, manganese is used in coins.
The best-known manganese-containing polypeptides (protein-like chains) may be arginase, Mn-containing superoxide dismutase, and the diphtheria toxin.
Manganese (chemical symbol Mn, atomic number 25) is a gray-white metal that combines with other elements in various proportions.
By the mid-eighteenth century, manganese dioxide was in use in the manufacture of chlorine.
Some speculate that the exceptional hardness of Spartan steels derives from the inadvertent production of an iron-manganese alloy.
A form of Parkinson's disease-type neurodegeneration called "manganism" has been linked to manganese exposure among miners and smelters since the early nineteenth century.
Manganese (from the Latin word magnes, meaning "magnet") was in use in prehistoric times, in the form of its compounds.
The Egyptians and Romans used manganese compounds in glass-making, to either remove color from glass or add color to it.
Naturally occurring manganese consists of one stable isotope: 55Mn.
The +3 oxidation state is also known, in compounds such as manganese(III) acetate—these are quite powerful oxidizing agents.
After special treatment, manganese metal becomes ferromagnetic—that is, it acquires the "normal" form of magnetism that most people are familiar with.
The only U.S. coins to use manganese were the "wartime" nickel (1942–1945) and the Sacagawea dollar (2000–present).
The greatest demand for manganese is for the production of iron and steel.
In 1816, it was noted that adding manganese to iron made it harder, without making it any more brittle.
Around the beginning of the nineteenth century, scientists began exploring the use of manganese in steelmaking, and patents were granted for its use at the time.
Manganese occurs principally as the mineral pyrolusite (manganese(IV) oxide, MnO2), and to a lesser extent as rhodochrosite (manganese(II) carbonate, MnCO3).
Manganese (in the form of manganese ions) is an essential trace nutrient in all known forms of life.
Manganese dioxide, besides being a useful pigment, is a catalyst and a component of certain dry cell batteries.
The oxidation states of manganese are known to range from +1 to +7, but the most common ones are +2, +3, +4, +6, and +7.
Manganese is part of the iron group of elements that are thought to be synthesized in large stars shortly before supernova explosion.
Vast quantities of manganese exist in manganese nodules on the ocean floor, but attempts to find economically viable methods of harvesting manganese nodules were abandoned in the 1970s.
Exposure to manganese dusts and fumes should not exceed the upper limit of five milligrams per cubic meter (mg/m3) for even short periods because of its toxicity level.
On the other hand, excess manganese is toxic.
In 1912, patents were issued in the United States for methods of using manganese for "Parkerizing" (electrochemical conversion coating of) firearms to protect them from rust and corrosion.
Manganese can be found in the iron ores used by the Spartans.
In 1837, Charles Babbage was the first to conceptualize and design a fully programmable mechanical computer that he called "The Analytical Engine".
The isotopes of manganese range in atomic weight from 46 atomic mass units (amu) (46Mn) to 65 amu (65Mn).
Given that 53Mn decays to 53Cr, manganese isotopic contents are typically combined with chromium isotopic contents and have found application in isotope geology and radiometric dating.
Swedish chemist Carl Wilhelm Scheele was the first to recognize that manganese was an element, and his colleague, Johan Gottlieb Gahn, isolated the pure element in 1774 by reduction of the dioxide with carbon.
Manganese(IV) oxide (manganese dioxide, MnO2) is used in dry cells, and can be used to decolorize glass that is polluted by trace amounts of iron.
Manganese has no satisfactory substitute in its major applications.
The technique known as manganese phosphating (or Parkerizing) is used to prevent the rusting and corrosion of steel.
Steeplechasing involves racing on a track where the horses also jump over obstacles.
The most stable oxidation state for manganese is +2, and many manganese(II) compounds are known, such as manganese(II) sulfate (MnSO4) and manganese(II) chloride (MnCl2).
In 2005, a study suggested a possible link between manganese inhalation and central nervous system toxicity in rats.