Modern margarine can be made from any of a wide variety of animal or vegetable fats, and is often mixed with skimmed milk, salt, and emulsifiers.
Margarine was invented in 1869 by French chemist Hippolyte Mиge-Mouriйs.
Margarine is a water-in-oil emulsion, as is butter.
Exceptions are some traditional kitchen margarines or products that have to maintain stability under tropical conditions (de Bruijne and Bot 1999).
The United States imports 10 billion pounds (4.5 billion kilograms) of margarine a year.
Individual states began to require the clear labeling of margarine, banning passing it off as real butter.
Bootleg colored margarine became common, and manufacturers began to supply food-coloring capsules so that the consumer could knead the yellow color into margarine before serving it.
Recipes sometimes refer to margarine as oleo or as shortening.
The long-running battle between the margarine and dairy lobbies continued: In the United States, the Great Depression brought a renewed wave of pro-dairy legislation; the Second World War, a swing back to margarine.
Margarine made from vegetable oils is especially important in today's market, as it provides a substitute for butter that is both vegan and pareve.
The key to slowing margarine sales (and protecting the established dairy industries), however, emerged as restricting its color.
Manufacturers of margarine hydrogenate the unsaturated vegetable oils so they will become more solid and be usable as a component of margarine (Herbst 2001).
Margarine became the staple spread, and butter a rare and expensive luxury.
Many Potawatomi are registered tribal members whether or not they live on or near a reservation.
Traditional margarine (~80 percent fat) contributes to this, but is not the main factor causing over-consumption.
Under European Union directives, margarine products cannot be called "butter," even if most of it consists of natural butter.
Mиge-Mouriйs invented a substance he called oleomargarine, the name of which became shortened to the trade name "margarine."
Discussions concerning the nutritional value of margarine revolve around two aspects: the total amount of fat, and the types of fat (saturated fat, trans fat).
Nevertheless, the regulations and taxes had a significant effect: The 1902 restrictions on margarine color, for example, cut annual U.S. consumption from 120 million to 48 million pounds (54.4 million to 21.8 million kilograms).
Margarine naturally appears white or almost white: By forbidding the addition of artificial coloring-agents, legislators found that they could keep margarine off kitchen tables.
By the end of the twentieth century, an average American ate just under four lb (1.8 kg) of butter and nearly 8 lb (3.6 kg) of margarine.
Post-war, the margarine lobby gained power and, little by little, the main margarine restrictions were lifted, the last state to do so being Wisconsin in 1967.
By the start of the twentieth century, eight out of ten Americans could not buy yellow margarine; and those who bought it had to pay a hefty tax on it.
Margarine, particularly polyunsaturated margarine, has become a major part of the Western diet.
Manufacturers produced oleomargarine by taking clarified vegetable fat, extracting the liquid portion under pressure, and then allowing it to solidify.
The roles of butter and margarine are quite similar with respect to their energy content.
Usually, a comparison between margarine and butter is included in this context as well.
Margarine has a particular market to Orthodox Jews.
Katz and Weaver (2003) report that Mиge-Mouriйs used the name margarine after the Greek word for "pearl-like," reflecting that the product had a pearly luster.
A margarine blend is a mixture of both types of components, and will rarely exceed 50 percent saturated fatty acids on fat.