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Facts about Monaco

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Monaco is the world's most densely populated state and second-smallest independent state, only behind Vatican City.

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The International Hydrographic Bureau (IHB) is headquartered in Monaco and the IAEA has its Marine Environment Laboratories there.

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Monaco's average age is 45 years old, which is the highest in the world.

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In 2000, the Financial Action Task Force (FATF) underlined that Monaco suffered a great lack of adequate resources.

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Monaco's population is unusual in that the native Monegasques are a minority in their own country.

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Soon after, following Mussolini's fall in Italy, the German Army occupied Monaco and began the deportation of the Jewish population.

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The 1907 Catholic Encyclopedia wrote, "From ancient times until the nineteenth century the port of Monaco was among the most important of the French Mediterranean coast, but now it has lost all commercial significance."

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One of Monaco's main sources of income is tourism; each year many are attracted to its famous casino and pleasant climate.

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Prior to 2002, Monaco minted their own franc coins, the Monegasque franc.

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In 2002, a new treaty between France and Monaco clarifies that if there are no heirs to carry on the dynasty, the Principality will remain an independent nation, rather than be annexed by France.

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Japan established diplomatic relations with Monaco in December of 2006, having previously only maintained consular relations.

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Monaco has been governed as a constitutional monarchy since 1911, with the Sovereign Prince of Monaco as head of state.

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Designated as a protectorate of the Kingdom of Sardinia in 1815 by the Congress of Vienna after Napoleon's defeat, Monaco's sovereignty was confirmed by the Franco-Monegasque Treaty of 1861.

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Monaco became a member of the United Nations in 1991, and received its first foreign diplomatic representative on February 16th, 2006, when a French Ambassador was accredited to the Principality.

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One of the motivations for the treaty was the anticipated upcoming Monaco Succession Crisis of 1918.

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In 1943, the Italian Army invaded and occupied Monaco, setting up a fascist puppet government.

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Twenty-two territories, Monaco included, were thus evaluated between 1998 and 2000 on a first round.

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Founded in 1215 as a colony of Genoa, Monaco has been ruled by the House of Grimaldi since 1297.

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Monaco actively participates in the United Nations, which it joined in 1993.

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Monaco was the only territory that refused to perform the second round, whereas the other 21 territories have implemented the third and final round.

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The distinction between the State and the City of Monaco is purely theoretical.

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Under Prince Louis' secret orders, the Monaco police, often at great risk to themselves, warned people in advance that the Gestapo was planning on arresting them.

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Monaco is also a member of many international and intergovernmental organizations, including Interpol, UNESCO, and WHO.

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The Principality of Monaco, more commonly known as Monaco, is a sovereign and independent state in Western Europe located along the French Riviera between the Mediterranean Sea and France.

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Designated as a protectorate of Sardinia from 1815 until 1860 by the Treaty of Vienna, Monaco's sovereignty was recognized by the Franco-Monegasque Treaty of 1861.

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Monaco remained under Roman control until the collapse of the Western Roman Empire in 476, from which point the area was ravaged by Saracens and various barbarian tribes.

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The Compagnie des Carabiniers du Prince (Prince's Company of Carabiniers) is the military force of Monaco.

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Monaco has acquired the right to mint euro coins with Monegasque designs on their national side.

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Monaco's military defense, however, is still the responsibility of France.

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The Prince of Monaco was an absolute ruler until a constitution was promulgated in 1911.

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Owing to its past diplomatic tutelage under France, Monaco still lacks diplomatic ties with many countries.

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Monaco has no army or air force, and only has a small coast guard consisting of three small patrol boats.

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On both a per-capita and per-area basis, Monaco has the largest police force and police presence in the world.

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On June 10, 1215, a detachment of Genoese Ghibellines led by Fulco del Cassello began the construction of a fortress atop the Rock of Monaco.