Substantial numbers of internal migrants mean that Moscow's population is still increasing, whereas the population of many other Russian cities is in decline.
Nevertheless, the city of Moscow remains one of Russia's major industrial centers.
Local transport includes the Moscow Metro, a metro system famous for its art, murals, mosaics, and ornate chandeliers.
During the summer, the extended hours of daylight allow more time to visit the wealth of historical, cultural and popular sites in Moscow.
Tverskaya Street is also one of the busiest shopping streets in Moscow.
The eXile is a newspaper intended for English-speaking expatriates in Moscow and is known for its satirical nature and pranks on Russian politicians.
Moscow is located within the central economic region, one of twelve regions within Russia with similar economic goals.
The oldest evidence of humans in the area where Moscow now stands dates from the Stone Age (Schukinskaya Neolithic site on the Moscow River).
In 1741 Moscow was surrounded by a barricade 25 miles long, the Kamer-Kollezhskiy barrier, with sixteen gates at which customs tolls were collected.
The seventeenth century was rich in popular risings, such as the liberation of Moscow from the Polish-Lithuanian invaders (1612), the Salt Riot (1648), the Copper Riot (1662), and the Moscow Uprising of 1682.
Facing serious transportation problems, Moscow has plans to expand the Moscow Metro.
Other notable media of Moscow include the Echo of Moscow, the first Soviet and Russian private news radio and information agency, and NTV, one of the first privately owned Russian television stations.
Institutions in Moscow, as well as the rest of post-Soviet Russia, have begun to offer new international certificates and postgraduate degrees, including the Master of Business Administration.
Moscow also hosts the annual Kremlin Cup, a popular tennis tournament on both the WTA and ATP tours.
Expert, Kommersant, and Gazeta are Russian-language media headquartered in Moscow.
In 1813 a Commission for the Construction of the City of Moscow was established.
Historically, it was the capital of the former Soviet Union and the Grand Duchy of Moscow, the pre-Imperial Russian state.
Ivan III relocated the Russian capital to Moscow (previous capitals were Kiev and Vladimir), and the city became the capital of an empire that would eventually encompass all of present-day Russia and other lands.
From 1610 through 1612, troops of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth occupied Moscow, as its ruler Sigismund III tried to take the Russian throne.
Losiny Ostrov National Park (literally - "Elk Island"), bordering the Sokolniki park, with total area of more than 116 square kilometers (45 sq mi) is the first national park of Russia, located in Moscow and Moscow Oblast.
On May 1, 1944 a medal For the defense of Moscow and in 1947 another medal In memory of the 800th anniversary of Moscow were instituted.
The project, conceived by the Moscow government in 1992, is intended to create a zone within the city that will combine business activity, living space and entertainment.
The Moscow Conservatory, founded in 1866, is a prominent music school in Russia, whose graduates have included Sergey Rachmaninoff, Alexander Scriabin, Aram Khachaturian, Mstislav Rostropovich, and Alfred Schnittke.
Moscow's road system is centered roughly around the heart of the city, the Moscow Kremlin.
The most populous city in Europe, metropolitan Moscow has a population of close to 12 million, which constitutes about 7 percent of the total Russian population.
English-language media include The Moscow Times and Moscow News which are, respectively, the largest and oldest English-language weekly newspapers in all of Russia.
The first written reference to “Moscow” dates from 1147, when it was an obscure town in a small province inhabited mostly by Merya, speakers of a now extinct Finnic language.
At the center of the city, in Central Administrative Okrug, is the Moscow Kremlin, which houses the home of the President of Russia as well as many of the facilities for the national government.
Moscow State Institute of International Relations, founded in 1944, remains Russia's best known school of international relations and diplomacy, with six different schools focused on international relations.
Moscow is also the center for Russian performing arts, including ballet and film.
The headquarters of the Russian Academy of Sciences, as well as numerous research and applied science institutions, are located in Moscow.
Moscow is also the western terminus of the Trans-Siberian Railway, which traverses nearly 9,300 kilometers (5,779 mi) of territory to Vladivostok.
Moscow International Performance Arts Center, opened in 2003, also known as Moscow International House of Music, is known for its performances in classical music.
In 1595 Spanish navigator Бlvaro de Mendaсa de Neira was the first European to reach a Polynesian island, the Marquesas Islands.
Many of Moscow's large parks offer marked trails for skiers and frozen ponds and canals for skaters.
Moscow possesses a large number of sport facilities, and over five hundred Olympic champions lived in the city by 2005.
Moscow was the host city of the 1980 Summer Olympics, although the yachting events were held at Tallinn, in present-day Estonia.
The Kristall distillery is the oldest distillery in Russia producing various types of vodka, including "Stolichnaya" while a wide assortment of wines are produced at several Moscow wine plants, including Moscow Interrepublican Vinery.
On May 8, 1965 in commemoration of the twentieth anniversary of the victory in World War II, Moscow was one of 12 Soviet cities awarded the title of Hero City.
Several Moscow institutions have divisions in other regions and countries around the world, including Russian neighbor Mongolia.
Moscow is world-renowned for its architecture and its performing arts.
Among Moscow's many theaters and ballet studios are the Bolshoi Theater and the Malyi Theater, as well as Vakhtangov Theater and Moscow Art Theater.
In 2006, Forbes ranked Moscow second highest in number of billionaires, surpassed only by New York City.
Yuri Dolgoruki called upon the prince of the Novgorod Republic to "come to me, brother, to Moscow.
Another art museum in the city of Moscow is the Pushkin Museum of Fine Arts.
In 1571 the Tatars from the Crimean Khanate seized and burned Moscow.
Primary industries in Moscow include the chemical, metallurgy, food, textile, furniture, energy production, software development and machinery industries.
Moscow International Business Center or Moscow-City is a projected part of central Moscow.
Automobile plants ZiL and AZLK, as well as the Voitovich Rail Vehicle plant, are situated in Moscow and Metrowagonmash metro waggon plant is located just outside the city limits.
A significant portion of Russia's financial development is concentrated in Moscow, as many multi-national corporations have branches and offices in the city.
Despite the siege and the bombings, the construction of Moscow's metro system, which began in the early 1930s, continued through the war and by the end of the war several new metro lines were opened.
After two years of battle, Moscow was completely destroyed by khan Tokhtamysh.
In 1380, prince Dmitri Donskoi of Moscow led a united Russian army to an important victory over the Tatars in the Battle of Kulikovo.
The plush offices and the lifestyles of corporate employees in Moscow are almost indistinguishable from those of any Western European city, although the average salary for the Muscovite is lower.
In 1991 Moscow was the scene of a coup attempt by the government members opposed to the reforms of Mikhail Gorbachev.
Following the success of the Russian Revolution of 1917, on March 12, 1918, Moscow became the capital of the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic and the Soviet Union less than five years later.
Moscow employs several train stations to serve the city.
Along with Saint Petersburg, Moscow is designated as one of only two federal cities within Russia.
Moscow developed into a stable and prosperous principality which attracted a large number of refugees from across Russia.
Among many buildings constructed or reconstructed at this time were the Grand Kremlin Palace and the Kremlin Armoury, the Moscow University, the Moscow Manege (Riding School), and the Bolshoi Theatre.
By the end of the eleventh century, Moscow was a small town with a feudal center and trade suburb situated at the mouth of the Neglinnaya River.
Some of the better known attractions include the city's UNESCO World Heritage Site, Moscow Kremlin and Red Square, which was built between the fourteenth and seventeenth centuries.
The outermost ring within Moscow is the Moscow Automobile Ring Road (often called the MKAD from the Russian ?????????? ????????? ????????????? ??????), which forms the approximate boundary of the city.
Nine of the ten administrative districts, except the City of Zelenograd (number 1 on the map), are located within City of Moscow main boundaries.
When the USSR was dissolved in the same year, Moscow continued to be the capital of Russia.
Moscow is the headquarters of nearly all Russian nationwide television network, radio stations, newspapers and magazines.
Moscow is home to an estimated 1.5 million Muslims, including about 100,000 Chechens, and between 50,000 and 150,000 Chinese.
Moscow (Russian: ???????, romanized: Moskva, IPA:) is the capital of Russia and the country's economic, financial, educational, and transportation center.
Moscow is a very green city if compared to other cities of comparable size in Western Europe and America.
Other popular attractions include the Moscow Zoo, home to nearly a thousand species and more than 6500 specimens.
Moscow also hosts the headquarters of various worldwide software development companies.
The Mil Moscow Helicopter Plant is one of the leading producers of military and civil helicopters in the world.
Despite the economic growth experienced in Moscow since the beginning of the twenty-first century, many industries have undergone various crises in recent years.
Architect Vladimir Shukhov was responsible for building several of Moscow's landmarks during early Soviet Russia.
Moscow's museums and galleries with their collections, are some of the largest and most important in the world.
In 2004, Russia's thirty-six billionaires (of whom only three did not live in Moscow) held the equivalent of twenty-four percent of Russia's gross domestic product.
Student exchange programs with different (especially, European) countries also have become widespread in Moscow's universities, while many schools within the Russian capital also offer seminars, lectures, and courses for corporate employees and businessmen.
Moscow is the administrative center of Moscow Oblast, but as a federal city, it is administratively separate from the oblast.
Among other prominent institutions are the Moscow Institute of Physics and Technology, also known as Phystech, Moscow Aviation Institute and the Moscow Engineering Physics Institute.
After the sacking of 1237-1238, when the Mongol Khanate of the Golden Horde burned the city to the ground and killed its inhabitants, Moscow recovered and became the capital of an independent principality in 1327.
Moscow has always been a popular destination for tourists.
Moscow is home to 63 stadiums (besides eight football and eleven light athletics maneges), of which Luzhniki Stadium is the largest, and the fourth largest in Europe.
The State Historical Museum of Russia (??????????????? ???????????? ?????) is a museum of Russian history wedged between Red Square and Manege Square in Moscow.
The Moscow State University library contains over nine million books, making it one of the largest libraries in all of Russia.
The Poljot Moscow watch factory produces reliable military, professional and sport watches well known in Russia and abroad.
The repertories in a typical Moscow season are exhaustive, and modern interpretations of classic works, whether operatic or theatrical, are common.
Sokolniki Park, which got its name from the falcon hunting that occurred here in the past, is one of the oldest in Moscow and has an area of 6 square kilometers (2 sq mi).
Due to the current economic situation, the price of real estate in Moscow continues to rise.
The Patriarch of Moscow, whose residence is the Danilov Monastery, serves as the head of the Russian Orthodox Church.
At the end of the hindgut, insects are able to reabsorb water along with potassium and sodium ions.
Moscow is situated on the banks of the Moskva River, which flows for just over five hundred kilometers through western Russia, in the center of the East-European plain.
The entire city of Moscow is headed by one mayor.
In 2007, Moscow ranked top on the List of most expensive cities for second year in a row.
Moscow, like with any national capital, also hosts all the foreign embassies and diplomats representing a multitude of nations in Russia.
Moscow is exposed to cold winters, warm and mild summers, and very brief spring and autumn seasons.
Moscow is the seat of power for the Russian Federation.
Due to the significant variation in temperature between the winter and summer months as well as the limited fluctuation in precipitation levels during the summer, Moscow is considered to be within a continental climate zone.
Migrants are attracted by Moscow's strong economy which contrasts sharply with the stagnation in many other parts of Russia.
Geographically situated in Presnensky District, located at the Third Ring, the Moscow-City area is currently under intense development.
The MKAD, along with the Third Transport Ring and the future Fourth Transport Ring, is one of only three freeways that run within Moscow city limits.
Moscow also remains a major economic center and is home to a large number of billionaires.
Moscow is known as one of the most important centers for science in Russia.