Jews from Arab countries - mainly Mizrahi Jews and Yemenite Jews - are today usually not categorized as Arab.
Throughout the world today, there are Muslim monarchies (some constitutional, some quasi-absolute), republics, and one-party states under dictatorial rule.
Islam also spread to many places where no military conquest ever took place, such as Indonesia (the largest Muslim population).
After this, there would always be rival dynasties claiming the caliphate, or leadership of the Muslim world, and many Islamic states or empires offering only token obedience to an increasingly powerless caliph.
Other punishments prescribed by sharia (depending on interpretation) may include the annulment of marriage with a Muslim spouse, the removal of children, the loss of property and inheritance rights, or other sanctions.
All these have, at different times and in various Muslim countries, had some electoral success.
The Qur'an does not explain much about the concept of the soul.
The word Muslim is also related to the word Isl?m and means one who "surrenders" or "submits" to God.
Many Muslim rulers, however, believed it their duty to extend Muslim rule throughout the world.
Early sharia had a much more flexible character than is currently associated with Islamic jurisprudence, and many modern Muslim scholars believe that it should be renewed, and the classical jurists should lose their special status.
Almost every Muslim has memorized some portion of the Qur'an in the original language.
Islam and Islamic political power revived in the twentieth century largely due to the oil-generated wealth of several Muslim states.
The Muslim community is defined as that which prohibits evil and promotes the good (3:110).
From the fourteenth to the seventeenth century, one of the most important Muslim territories was the Mali Empire, whose capital was Timbuktu.
Sometimes, Jews fleeing from harsher Muslim rule in one region found refuge elsewhere, such as when Jews fleeing Spain in 1492 moved to Egypt and to the Balkans, where they were welcomed.
One very small Muslim group, based primarily in the United States, follows the teachings of Rashad Khalifa (1935 – 1990) and calls itself the "Submitters."
Muhammad, the prophet of Islam, governed the first Muslim ummah (nation or community), his model being a single, trans-cultural, trans-racial community.
The Qur'an emphasizes Noah's preaching of the monotheism of God, and the ridicule heaped on him by idolators.
No Muslim visual images or depictions of God exist because such artistic depictions may lead to idolatry and are thus prohibited.
Later scholars have struggled to put the suras in chronological order, and among Muslim commentators, at least there is a rough consensus as to which suras were revealed in Mecca and which at Medina.
The art of calligraphy, rendering the Qur'an beautiful in written form, is also an advanced art in the Muslim world.
The claim of the adherents of the Bahб'н Faith that it represents an independent religion was upheld by the Muslim ecclesiastical courts in Egypt during the 1920s.