Oatmeal stout is one variety brewed using a percentage of oats for the wort.
Winter oats may be grown as an off-season groundcover and plowed under in the spring as a green fertilizer.
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Oats can also be left standing until completely ripe and then combined with a grain head.
Oats are also used in some brands of dog and chicken feed.
Domesticated oats appear relatively late, and far from the Near East, in Bronze Age Europe.
Oats are the third most important grain crop in the United States (CNCPP 1999) and are seventh in weight of production worldwide, after maize, rice, wheat, barley, sorghum, and millet (FAO 2008).
Oats remove potash (K2O) at a rate of 0.19 pound per bushel per acre, which causes it to use 15 to 30 kilograms per hectare, or 13 to 27 pounds per acre.
Notably, oats are frequently processed near wheat, barley and other grains, such that they become contaminated with other glutens.
Globulins are characterized by water solubility; because of this property, oats may be turned into a milky liquid but not into bread.
Oats can be safely stored at 12 percent moisture; at higher moisture levels, it must be aereated, or dried.
Oats are cold-tolerant and will be unaffected by late frosts or snow.
Note, however, that oats are bought and sold, and yields are figured, on the basis of a bushel equal to 32 pounds in the United States.
All oats have edible seeds, though they are small and hard to harvest in most species.
Oats are relatively free from diseases and pests, with the exception being leaf diseases, such as leaf rust and stem rust.
Oats may also be consumed raw, and cookies with raw oats are becoming popular.
Oats are also an ingredient in many cold cereals, in particular muesli and granola.
The percentages of beta-glucan in the various whole oat products are: oat bran, greater than 5.5 percent and up to 23.0 percent; rolled oats, about 4 percent; whole oat flour about 4 percent.
The soluble fiber in whole oats comprises a class of polysaccharides known as Beta-D-glucan.
Oats are also occasionally used in Britain for brewing beer.
Oats also remove phosphorus in the form of P2O5 at the rate of 0.25 pound per bushel per acre.
Oats are part of a gluten free diet in, for example, Finland and Sweden.
The true grasses known as oats, Avena sp., are native to Europe, Asia and northwest Africa.
Oats were gathered into shocks and then collected and run through a stationary threshing machine.
A follow-up study indicated that it is safe to use oats even for a longer period (Janatuinen et al.
A Canadian bushel of oats, however, is 34 pounds.
Historical attitudes towards oats as food for humans vary.
In 2007, almost 26 million metric tons of oats were produced worldwide (FAO 2008).
Oats remove substantial amounts of nitrogen from the soil.
Oats, like rye, are usually considered a secondary crop; in other words, derived from a weed of the primary cereal domesticates wheat and barley.
Oats lack many of the prolamines found in wheat; however, oats do contain avenin (Rottmann 1996).
Cattle are also fed oats, either whole, or ground into a coarse flour using a roller mill, burr mill, or hammer mill.
Oats make up a large part of the diet of horses and are regularly fed to cattle as well.
Oats are an annual plant and can be planted either in autumn (for harvesting the next year) or in the spring (for early autumn harvest).
The discovery of the healthy cholesterol-lowering properties has led to wider appreciation of oats as human food.
Oats from areas where less wheat is grown, such as Ireland and Scotland, are less likely to be contaminated in this way.
Oats are generally considered "healthy," or a health food, being touted commercially as nutritious.
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After it is combined, the oats typically are transported to the farmyard using a grain truck, semi, or road train, where it is augered or conveyed into a bin for storage.
Samuel Johnson notoriously defined oats in his Dictionary as "a grain, which in England is generally given to horses, but in Scotland supports the people."
The role of oats in a gluten free diet remains controversial.
Oats are also commonly used as feed for horses, where it is dehulled and rolled.
The vigorous growth habit of oats will tend to choke out most weeds.
A number of studies suggest that the presence of oats in gluten-free diet may be potentially harmful to individuals with coeliac disease (Silano et al.