In 1687, the Parthenon suffered its greatest blow when the Venetians under Francesco Morosini attacked Athens, and the Ottomans fortified the Acropolis and used the building as a gunpowder magazine.
Over the past 20 years, the Greek government and the city of Athens have made some progress on these issues, but the future survival of the Parthenon does not seem to be assured.
When independent Greece gained control of Athens in 1832, the visible section of the minaret was removed from the Parthenon and soon all the medieval and Ottoman buildings on the Acropolis were removed.
The resulting explosion severely damaged the Parthenon and its sculptures.
The most important buildings visible on the Acropolis today - that is, the Parthenon, the Propylaia, the Erechtheion, and the temple of Athena Nike, were erected during this period.
The Parthenon, one of the most visited archaeological sites in Greece, is regarded as an enduring symbol of ancient Greece and of Athenian democracy, and is one of the world's greatest cultural monuments.
The Parthenon (Greek: ??????????) is a temple of the Greek goddess Athena built in the fifth century B.C.E.
Shortly after this, the Parthenon was converted to a Christian church.
Measured at the top step, the dimensions of the base of the Parthenon are 69.5 meters by 30.9 meters (228.0 x 101.4 ft).
What they produced was the first measured drawings of the Parthenon published in 1787 in the second volume of Antiquities of Athens Measured and Delineated.
The Parthenon replaced an older temple of Athena, called the Pre-Parthenon or Older Parthenon, that was destroyed in the Persian invasion of 480 B.C.E.
Parthenon was built under the general supervision of the sculptor Phidias, who also had charge of the sculptural decoration.
Pausanias, the second century traveller, when he visited the Acropolis and saw the Parthenon, briefly described only the pediments (four entrances to the Parthenon) of the temple.
The Parthenon, an octostyle, peripteral Doric temple with Ionic architectural features, housed the chryselephantine statue of Athena Parthenos sculpted by Phidias and dedicated in 439/438 B.C.E.
Architecturally, the Parthenon is clearly a temple, formerly containing the famous cult image of Athena by Phidias and the treasury of votive offerings.
The Older or Pre-Parthenon, as it is frequently referred to, was still under construction when the Persians sacked the city in 480 B.C.E.
Some of the financial accounts for the Parthenon survive and show that the largest single expense was transporting the stone from Mount Pentelicus, about 16 kilometers from Athens, to the Acropolis.
In 1975, the Greek government began a concerted effort to restore the Parthenon and other Acropolis structures.
The only piece of sculpture from the Parthenon known to be from the hand of Phidias was the cult statue of Athena housed in the naos.
An immediate problem facing the Parthenon is the environmental impact of the growth of Athens since the 1960s.
The first instance in which Parthenon definitely refers to the entire building is in the fourth century B.C.E.
The Parthenon had 46 outer pillars and 19 inner pillars in total.
In 1456, Athens fell to the Ottomans, and the Parthenon was converted again, this time into a mosque.
The Parthenon survived as a temple to Athena for close to a thousand years.
On the north side of the Parthenon the metopes are poorly preserved, but the subject seems to be the sack of Troy.
Like most Greek temples, the Parthenon was used as a treasury, and for a time served as the treasury of the Delian League, which later became the Athenian Empire.
The metopes of the east side of the Parthenon, above the main entrance, depict the Gigantomachy (mythical battles between the Olympian gods and the Giants).
The origin of the Parthenon's name is unclear.
The richness of the Parthenon's frieze and metope decoration is in agreement with the function of the temple as a treasury.