Penguins have an average sense of hearing for birds (Wever et al.
All penguins are countershaded for camouflage—that is, they have a white underside and a dark (mostly black) upperside.
The small penguins do not usually dive deep; they catch their prey near the surface in dives that normally last only one or two minutes.
Penguins have a thick layer of insulating feathers that serve to keep them warm in water (heat loss in water is much greater than in air).
On land, penguins use their tails and wings to maintain balance for their upright stance.
Most penguins lay two eggs in a clutch, though the two largest species, the emperor and the king penguins, lay only one (Williams 1995).
The most recent common ancestor of penguins and their sister clade has been roughly dated to the Campanian–Maastrichtian boundary, around 70–68 million years ago (Baker et al.
Penguins are found off the coasts of South America, Africa, Australia, and New Zealand.
In any case, the gigantic penguins had disappeared by the end of the Paleogene, around 25 mya.
The basal penguins are considered to have lived around the time of the Cretaceous–Tertiary extinction event, somewhere in the general area of (southern) New Zealand and Byrd Land, Antarctica (Ksepka et al.
Penguins either waddle on their feet or slide on their bellies across the snow, a movement called "tobogganing," which conserves energy while allowing them to move quickly.
Diving penguins reach 6 to 12 kilometers per hour (3.7-7.5 mph), though there are reports of velocities of 27 kilometers per hour (17 mph) (which are more realistic in the case of startled flight).
Penguins form monogamous pairs for a breeding season, though the rate the same pair recouples varies drastically according to species.
What seems clear is that penguins belong to a clade of Neoaves (living birds except paleognaths and fowl) which comprises what is sometimes called "higher waterbirds" to distinguish them from the more ancient waterfowl.
Penguins have stout bodies, with a characteristic upright posture and wings that are stiff, modified into flippers, and not folded against the body.
Larger penguins can dive deep in case of need.
Among extant penguins larger penguins inhabit colder regions, while smaller penguins are generally found in temperate or even tropical climates (see also Bergmann's Rule).
Penguins are superbly adapted to an aquatic life.
Aiding this has been their large breeding aggregations and the fact many penguins seem to have no special fear of humans and have approached groups of explorers without hesitation.
Most penguins feed on krill, fish, cuttlefish, squid, and other forms of sealife caught while swimming underwater.
Historically, penguins have been hunted for the oil from their substantial, insulating fat layer.
During the Late Eocene and the Early Oligocene (40–30 mya), some lineages of gigantic penguins existed.
Presumedly diverging from other penguins around 40 mya (Baker et al.
Their wings, in the form of flippers, are useless for flight in the air but allow penguins in water to be astonishingly agile.
Penguins provide important ecological functions are part of food chains.
Penguins can drink salt water because their supraorbital gland filters excess salt from the bloodstream (Saint Louis Zoo; van der Merwe).
Modern penguins consititute two undisputed clades and another two more basal genera with more ambiguous relationships (Bertelli and Giannini 2005).
Traditionally, most extinct species of penguins, giant or small, had been placed in the paraphyletic subfamily called Palaeeudyptinae.
Extant penguins comprise the subfamily Spheniscinae in the family Spheniscidae.
Penguins of the Antarctic and Sub-Antarctic breed on coasts and pack ice, while those closer to the equator tend to breed in coastal or forest habitats (Howard 2003).
Penguins, like all other birds, do not have teeth. The chicks do have an egg tooth, but this is not a real tooth, but rather a sharp bump on the top surface of the bill which is used to break the egg when hatching. Penguins do have rearward-pointing, tooth-like barbs on the tongue and roof of the mouth.
Polar bears don't eat penguins because polar bears live in the Arctic and penguins live in the Antarctic – a very long way away! However, in asking this sort of question, the interviewer doesn't really expect many people to get the right answer – and they don't necessarily care too much if they do.May 23, 2017
Other Tundra Penguins. Two other penguin species can be found in tundra-like regions near Antarctica. ... Rockhopper penguins also live in tundra-like regions. However, they are found more frequently on southern Atlantic Ocean islands outside of the Antarctic polar front.Apr 25, 2017
Although it is possible for somebody to take some there, the Arctic is not their natural habitat. Penguins only live in the southern hemisphere, and only two of the 17 species of penguin actually live in the Antarctic. ... And... polar bears do not eat penguins, because polar bears do not live in the southern hemisphere.
Penguins communicate by vocalizing and performing physical behaviors called displays. They use many vocal and visual displays to communicate nesting territories, mating information, nest relief rituals, partner and chick recognition, and defense against intruders.
A group of penguins in the water is called a 'raft' – a group of penguins on land is called a waddle. Other collective nouns for penguins include: rookery, colony, and huddle.
A nest of eggs is called a clutch, and with the exception of emperor and king penguins, clutches usually contain two eggs. (Emperor and king penguins lay a single egg.) A clutch with more than one egg presents a better chance of at least one chick surviving.
Although emperor penguins are effective hunters, they are also prey to a few Antarctic animals as well. Only a third of the juvenile penguins will make it to their first birthday, falling prey to seabirds like giant petrels or skuas. In the water, both juveniles and adults are eaten by leopard seals and killer whales.
Penguin Predators. Penguins are a food source for a number of marine mammals, especially leopard seals. These seals hide under ice flows and wait for their prey. Other marine mammal predators are sea lions and orcas.
This cuts the drag on their bodies, allowing them to double or triple their swimming speed quickly and launch into the air. 3. Most penguins swim underwater at around four to seven miles per hour (mph), but the fastest penguin—the gentoo (Pygoscelis papua)—can reach top speeds of 22 mph!Apr 25, 2013
Penguins are carnivores; they eat only meat. Their diet includes krill (tiny crustaceans), squid and fish. Some species of penguin can make a large dent in an area's food supply.Sep 22, 2014
Penguins are carnivores: they feed on fish, squid, crabs, krill and other seafood they catch while swimming. During the summer, an active, medium-sized penguin will eat about 2 pounds of food each day, but in the winter they'll eat just a third of that. 8.Apr 25, 2013
Snakes, lizards, turtles, crocodilians, and birds are reptiles. Like all vertebrates, reptiles have bony skeletons that support their bodies. ... Some types of reptiles (such as sea turtles and penguins) are adapted to living in water, but even these species come onto land to lay their eggs.
In addition to standing, penguins can also be found in a wide variety of sleeping positions. King Penguins and other large species are known to sleep on their bellies, whereas smaller penguins often nap in burrows. When incubating their eggs, however, most species will remain standing.Feb 1, 2018
Penguins are birds, so they do have wings. However, the wing structures of penguins are evolved for swimming, rather than flying in the traditional sense. Penguins swim underwater at speeds of up to 15 to 25 miles per hour . As adept swimmers, penguins spend a lot of time in the water.
Penguins, like all other birds, do not have teeth. ... Penguins do have rearward-pointing, tooth-like barbs on the tongue and roof of the mouth. These are not used for chewing, but instead assist in the swallowing of their slippery prey.
Flying penguins. Flying penguins are a very recent addition to the penguin family in evolutionary terms. A few isolated species have evolved to make the most of their small wings, allowing them to migrate to warmer climes for the harsh Antarctic winter months.
Penguin tail. A penguin tail is short and in the shape of a wedge. There are 14 to 18 stiff tail feathers. Adelie, Chinstrap and Gentoo penguins have longer tails than the other species, and these are sometimes used as a prop on land or when climbing a steep hill.
In fact, they do have ears that are located on each side of their head. But they do not have external ear flaps. Their ears are just holes and are covered by feathers. The absence of external ear flaps gives the penguins a more streamline shape and minimizes drag as they swim through the water.Dec 7, 2010