According to postmodernist criminology, the discourse of criminal law is dominant, exclusive and rejecting, less diverse, and culturally not pluralistic, exaggerating narrowly defined rules for the exclusion of others.
Caesar called first Crassus, then Pompey, to a secret meeting in the northern Italian town of Lucca to rethink both strategy and tactics.
After this continued string of unbroken victories, Pompey was proclaimed Imperator by his troops on the field in Africa.
Pompey features as the main character and is held as a tragic hero in Lucan's Civil War the second most famous Roman heroic epic.
Significantly, Caesar was again one of a handful of senators who supported Pompey's command from the start.
Ultimately it took Pompey all of a summer to clear the Mediterranean of the danger of pirates.
Shakespeare ironically referred to Pompey the Great in Measure for Measure.
During his career, Pompey annexed Palestine and much of Asia, leaving a permanent mark on the geo-political map of the world.
Pompey, more than most of his peers, tended to see others as equally human; he valued and admired different cultures.
Pompey was hailed as the first man in Rome, "Primus inter pares" the first among equals.
Plutarch quotes Cato the Younger as later saying that the tragedy of Pompey was not that he was Caesar's defeated enemy, but that he had been, for too long, Caesar's friend and supporter.
Pompey made himself master of the island in 82 B.C.E.
Once Cicero was back, his usual vocal magic helped soothe Pompey's position somewhat, but many still viewed Pompey as a traitor for his alliance with Caesar.
The historical character of Pompey plays a prominent role in several books from the Masters of Rome series of historical novels by Australian author Colleen McCullough.
From now on, Pompey's political maneuverings suggest that, although he toed a cautious line to avoid offending the conservatives, he was increasingly puzzled by Optimate reluctance to acknowledge his solid achievements.
Happy to acknowledge his wife's son-in-law's wishes, and to clear his own situation as dictator, Sulla first sent Pompey to recover Sicily from the Marians.
Pompey dealt with the resistance with a harsh hand, executing Gnaeus Papirius Carbo and his supporters.
Pompey the Great made Syria a Roman province in 64 B.C.E.
Having annexed what he described as the "outermost province" Pompey said that this was now "the most central one.
What Pompey saw was unlike anything he had seen on his travels.
Crassus' tax farming clients were being rebuffed at the same time that Pompey's veterans were being ignored.
Much of what Pompey did set out, says Leach, to emulate Alexander.
Pompey indeed followed Alexander's footsteps and conquering much of the same territory, including Palestine.
By 69 B.C.E., Pompey was the darling of the Roman masses, although many Optimates were deeply suspicious of his intentions.
On September 28, a day short of his 58th birthday, Pompey was lured toward a supposed audience on shore in a small boat in which he recognized two old comrades-in-arms, Achillas and Lucius Septimius.
Pompey countered by refusing to disband his legions until his request was granted.
Pompey is one of the key antagonists in the fourth season of Xena: Warrior Princess, portrayed by Australian actor Jeremy Callaghan.
The insurrection group led by Brutus somewhat represents Pompey's "party".
Pompey would continue to govern Hispania in absentia after their consular year.
Pompey had scarcely left school before he was summoned to serve under his father in the Social war, and in 89B.C.E., at the age of seventeen, he fought against the Italians.
Pompey's entry into Jerusalem and the desecration of the Temple is depicted in the opening scene of Nicholas Ray's biblical epic King of Kings.
The triumvirate was about to end, its bonds snapped by death: first, Pompey's wife (and at that time Caesar's only child), Julia, died in 54 B.C.E.
Pompey divided the Mediterranean into thirteen separate areas, each under the command of one of his legates.
Back in Rome, Pompey deftly dismissed his armies, disarming worries that he intended to spring from his conquests into domination of Rome as Dictator.
Caesar and Pompey had their final showdown at the Battle of Pharsalus in 48 B.C.E.
Only when Clodius began attacking Pompey was he persuaded to work with others towards Cicero's recall in 57 B.C.E.
A fictionalized Gnaeus Pompey Magnus also plays a key role in the first season of the HBO/BBC television series Rome], where he is played by Kenneth Cranham.
Escaping Caesar by a hair in Brundisium, Pompey regained his confidence during the siege of Dyrrhachium, in which Caesar lost 1000 men.
Accordingly, Pompey attempted to enter Rome in triumph towed by an elephant.
On the approach of Pompey, Mithridates retreated towards Armenia but was defeated.
Pompey decided to link forces with the good-natured Hyrcanus II, and their joint army of Romans and Jews besieged Jerusalem for three months, after which it was taken from Aristobulus II.
Pompey's porch, theatre, and entry into Rome are portrayed in Shakespeare's Julius Caesar.
Perperna was easily defeated by Pompey in their first battle, and the whole of Hispania was subdued by the early part of the following year 71.
Caesar somehow managed to forge a political alliance with both Pompey and Crassus (the so-called First Triumvirate).
Pompey on December 31, 71 B.C.E., entered the city of Rome in his triumphal car, a simple eques, celebrating his second extralegal triumph for the victories in Hispania.
Caesar's tempestuous consulship in 59 brought Pompey not only the land and political settlements he craved, but a new wife: Caesar's own young daughter, Julia.
In carrying both these measures Pompey was strongly supported by Caesar, with whom he was thus brought into close connection.
The public turmoil in Rome resulted in whispers as early as 54 that Pompey should be made dictator to force a return to law and order.
At Lucca it was agreed that Pompey and Crassus would again stand for the consulship in 55 B.C.E.
Pompey had been busy in Asia during the consternation of the Catiline Conspiracy, when Caesar pitted his will against that of the Consul Cicero and the rest of the Optimates.
Pompey and Crassus would make him Consul, and he would use his power as Consul to force their claims.
Pomponius Mela tells that Achilles is buried in the island named Achillea, between Boristhene and Ister (De situ orbis, II, 7).
Pompey remained in Hispania between five and six years 76–71 B.C.E.
Pompey conducted the campaigns of 65 to 62 B.C.E.
James Ussher records that Pompey admired Alexander from his youth and "imitated both his actions and his advice.
Pompey was employed during the remainder of this year and the beginning of the following in visiting the cities of Cilicia and Pamphylia, and providing for the government of the newly-conquered districts.
Other agitators tried to persuade Pompey that Crassus was plotting to have him assassinated.
After his arrival in Egypt, Pompey's fate was decided by the counselors of the young king Ptolemy XIII.
After Julia's death, Caesar sought a second matrimonial alliance with Pompey, offering a marital alliance with his grandniece Octavia (future emperor Augustus's sister).
Pompey sided with Sulla after his return from Greece in 83 B.C.E.
Pompey efficiently handled the grain issue, but his success at political intrigue was less sure.
To Pompey, it was inconceivable to worship a God without portraying him in a type of physical likeness, like a statue.
Sulla was expecting trouble with Gnaeus Papirius Carbo's regime and found the 23-year-old Pompey and the three veteran legions very useful.
Pompey cut these fugitives to pieces, and therefore claimed for himself, in addition to all his other exploits, the glory of finishing the revolt.
The Optimates had fought back to control much of the real workings of the Senate; in spite of his efforts, Pompey found their inner councils were closed to him.
The power of music to uplift the spirit and comfort the human soul hints at its largely untapped potential to support the cause of world peace.
Extending "the boundaries of knowledge" was as important for Pompey as playing "power-politics".
According to Suetonius, it was at this point that Caesar said that "that man (Pompey) does not know how to win a war.
The Hellenized cities of the region, particularly the cities of the Decapolis, for centuries counted dates from Pompey's conquest, a calendar called the Pompeian era.
Caesar's name, not Pompey's, was now firmly before the public as Rome's great new general.
Pompey's frustration led him into strange political alliances.
Pompey entered the Holy of Holies; this was only the second time that someone had dared to penetrate into this sacred spot.
Pompey was accompanied by scholars, who took the results of their researches back to Rome.
The episode follows Caesar's campaign against the Republic, whose army is led by Pompey.
Pompey responded by calling Lucullus a "Xerxes in a toga."
To conclude the festivities, Pompey offered an immense triumphal banquet and made several donations to the people of Rome, enhancing his popularity even further.
A fictionalized depiction of Pompey's relationship with Cicero can be seen in Imperium, a novel by Robert Harris.
Links already existed between the Middle East and the Greek-Roman world but Pompey's conquests made new transport and communication channels possible.
Pompey had been diminished by age, uncertainty, and the harassment of being the chosen tool of a quarreling Optimate oligarchy.
Both sides gave money to Pompey for assistance, and a picked delegation of Pharisees went in support of Hyrcanus II.
The civil war was causing instability and it exposed Pompey's unprotected flank.
Lucullus, a well-born plebeian noble, made it known that he was incensed at the prospect of being replaced by a "new man" such as Pompey.
Gnaeus Pompeius Magnus, commonly known as Pompey /'p?mpi/, Pompey the Great or Pompey the Triumvir (September 29 106 B.C.E.–September 28 48 B.C.E.
Pompey's rivalry with Julius Caesar supports the plot in George Bernard Shaw's Caesar and Cleopatra (play).
Caesar gave Pompey's ashes and ring to Cornelia, who took them back to her estates in Italy.
In 67 B.C.E., two years after his consulship, Pompey was nominated commander of a special naval task force to campaign against the pirates that menaced the Mediterranean.
Pompey fought on the side of the Optimates, the conservative faction in the Roman Senate, until he was defeated by Caesar.