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Facts about Sanskrit

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ASCII-based transliteration schemes have evolved due to difficulties representing Sanskrit characters in computer systems.

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Sanskrit has also made an appearance in Western pop music in recent years, in two recordings by Madonna.

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Sanskrit grammatical tradition (vy?kara?a, one of the six Vedanga disciplines) began in late Vedic India and culminated in the A???dhy?y? of P??ini, which consists of 3990 sutras (c. fifth century B.C.E.).

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Similar to the way in which Latin influenced European languages and Classical Chinese influenced East Asian languages, Sanskrit has influenced most Indian languages.

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Many organizations like the Samskrta Bharati are conducting Speak Sanskrit workshops to popularize the language.

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Sanskrit, as defined by P??ini, had evolved out of the earlier "Vedic" form.

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Inhabitants of all castes learn Sanskrit starting in childhood and converse in the language.

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The corpus of Sanskrit literature encompasses a rich tradition of poetry and drama as well as scientific, technical, philosophical and religious texts.

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Spoken Sanskrit is still in use in a few traditional institutions in India, and there are some attempts at revival.

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Older forms of the language had a subjunctive, though this had fallen out of use by the time of Classical Sanskrit.

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When the term arose in India, "Sanskrit" was not thought of as a specific language set apart from other languages, but rather as a particularly refined or perfected manner of speaking.

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Sanskrit

Sanskrit (???????? ???? sa?sk?t? v?k, for short ????????? sa?sk?tam) is an ancient Indo-European classical language of South Asia, a liturgical language of Hinduism and Buddhism primarily, and utilized occasionally in Jainism.

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Classical Sanskrit is considered to have descended from Vedic Sanskrit.

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Malayalam, Telugu and Kannada also combine a great deal of Sanskrit vocabulary.

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Around 600 B.C.E., in the classical period of Iron Age Ancient India, Sanskrit began the transition from a primary language to a second language of religion and learning, used by the educated elite.

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The vowels /e/ and /o/ continue as allophonic variants of Proto-Indo-Iranian /ai/, /au/ and are categorized as diphthongs by Sanskrit grammarians even though they are realized phonetically as simple long vowels.

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Sanskrit is a highly inflected language with three grammatical genders (masculine, feminine, neuter) and three numbers (singular, plural, dual).

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Sanskrit verbs have an indicative, an optative and an imperative mood.

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Classical Sanskrit is defined by the the oldest surviving Sanskrit grammar, P??ini's A???dhy?y? ("Eight-Chapter Grammar") dating to circa the fifth century B.C.E.

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The national anthem, Jana Gana Mana, is written in a literary form of Bengali (known as shuddha bhasha), Sanskritized so as to be recognizable, but still archaic to the modern ear.

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Many Sanskrit loanwords are also found in traditional Malay and Modern Indonesian, Old Javanese language (close to 50 percent) and Vietnamese.

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Buddhism was spread to China by Mahayanist missionaries mostly through translations of Buddhist Hybrid Sanskrit and Classical Sanskrit texts, and many terms were transliterated directly and added to the Chinese vocabulary.

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Sanskrit is one of the twenty-two official languages of India, and an ancestor of the modern Indo-Aryan languages.

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The motto of the Republic is also in Sanskrit.

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Sanskrit and related languages have also influenced their Sino-Tibetan-speaking neighbors to the north through the spread of Buddhist texts in translation.

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The climactic battle theme of The Matrix Revolutions features a choir singing Sanskrit prayer in the closing titles of the movie.

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Sanskrit's greatest influence, presumably, is that which it exerted on languages that grew from its vocabulary and grammatical base.

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The 1991 Indian census reported 49,736 fluent speakers of Sanskrit.

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Vedic Sanskrit often allowed two like vowels to come together without merger during Sandhi (composition of words and phrases).

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Knowledge of Sanskrit was a marker of social class and educational attainment and the language was taught mainly to members of the higher castes, through close analysis of Sanskrit grammarians such as P??ini.

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Sudharma, the only daily newspaper in Sanskrit, has been published out of Mysore in India since the year 1970.

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The second, "Cyber-raga," released in 2000, is a Sanskrit-language ode of devotion to a higher power and a wish for peace on earth.

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Today, Sanskrit continues to be widely used as a ceremonial language in Hindu religious rituals in the forms of hymns and mantras.

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Recital of Sanskrit shlokas as background chorus in films, television advertisements and as slogans for corporate organizations has become a trend.

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Sanskrit has ten classes of verbs divided into in two broad groups: athematic and thematic.

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Sanskrit is spoken natively by the population in Mattur village in central Karnataka.

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Many of India's scientific discoveries and developments are named in Sanskrit, as a counterpart of the western practice of naming scientific developments in Latin or Greek.

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The current hypothesis holds that the Vedic form of Sanskrit survived until the middle of the first millennium B.C.E.

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The scope of this article is the Classical Sanskrit language as laid out in the grammar of Panini, around 500 B.C.E.

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Especially among йlite circles in India, Sanskrit is prized as a storehouse of scripture and the language of prayers in Hinduism.

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Historically, Sanskrit was not associated with any particular script.

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Scholars often distinguish Vedic Sanskrit and Classical or "Paninian" Sanskrit as separate dialects.

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The system most commonly used today is the IAST (International Alphabet of Sanskrit Transliteration), which has been the academic standard since 1912.

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According to Tuwari, there were four principal dialects of Sanskrit; pa?cimottar? (Northwestern, also called Northern or Western), madhyade?? (Middle Country), p?rvi (Eastern) and dak?i?? (Southern, originating in the Classical period).

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Composer John Williams also featured a choir singing in Sanskrit for Star Wars Episode I: The Phantom Menace.

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Conjugational endings in Sanskrit convey person, number, and voice.

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Classical Sanskrit is a regularized, prescriptivist form abstracted from the much more irregular and richer Vedic Sanskrit.

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Many of the post–Independence educational institutions of national importance in India and Sri Lanka have Sanskrit mottoes.

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Buddhist texts composed in Sanskrit proper were primarily found in philosophical schools like the Madhyamaka.

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Sanskrit does not belong to the Indo-Iranian sub-family of the Indo-European family of languages.

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There have been proposals to use Sanskrit as a metalanguage for knowledge representation in e.g.

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The national song of India, Vande Mataram, originally a poem composed by Bankim Chandra Chattopadhyay and taken from his book called 'Anandamath', is in a similarly highly Sanskritized Bengali.

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The table below shows the traditional listing of the Sanskrit consonants with the (nearest) equivalents in English/Spanish.

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Of modern day Indian languages, while Hindi and Urdu tend to be more heavily weighted with Arabic and Persian influence, Nepali, Bengali, Assamese, Konkani and Marathi still retain a largely Sanskrit vocabulary base.

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A significant form of post-Vedic Sanskrit is found in the Sanskrit of the Hindu Epics, the Ramayana and Mahabharata.