The United States had been considering launching orbital satellites since 1945 under the Bureau of Aeronautics of the United States Navy.
Clarke examined the logistics of satellite launch, possible orbits, and other aspects of the creation of a network of world-circling satellites, pointing to the benefits of high-speed global communications.
Mobile satellite systems help connect remote regions, vehicles, ships and aircraft to other parts of the world and/or other mobile or stationary communications units, in addition to serving as navigation systems.
The space objects now orbiting Earth range from satellites weighing several tons to pieces of spent rocket bodies weighing only 10 pounds.
The satellite’s functional versatility is imbedded within its technical components and its operations characteristics.
USSTRATCOM is primarily interested in the active satellites, but also tracks space debris which upon reentry might otherwise be mistaken for incoming missiles.
Scientific research satellites provide us with meteorological information, land survey data (e.g., remote sensing), and other different scientific research applications such as earth science, marine science, and atmospheric research.
The first fictional depiction of a satellite being launched into orbit is a short story by Edward Everett Hale, The Brick Moon.
Both North Korea (1998) and Iraq (1989) have claimed orbital launches (satellite and warhead accordingly), but these claims are unconfirmed.
The power subsystem consists of solar panels and backup batteries that generate power when the satellite passes into the earth’s shadow.
In 2007 the Chinese military shot down an ageing weather satellite, followed by the US Navy shooting down a defunct spy satellite in February 2008.
Note: many more countries have the capability to design and build satellites—which relatively speaking, does not require much economic, scientific and industrial capacity—but are unable to launch them, instead relying on foreign launch services.
Does not include consortium satellites or multi-national satellites.
Iran already has successfully tested its own space launch vehicle (Kavoshgar 1) and is scheduled to put its first domestic satellite (Omid 1) into orbit within a year from February 4, 2008.
Satellites are useful for a number of purposes.
Such objects are sometimes called artificial satellites to distinguish them from natural satellites such as the Moon.
On July 29, 1955, the White House announced that the U.S. intended to launch satellites by the spring of 1958.
Due to the low received signal strength of satellite transmissions they are prone to Radio jamming by land-based transmitters.
Satellites in low earth orbit have been destroyed by ballistic missiles launched from earth.
The attitude and orbit controlled subsystem consists of small rocket thrusters that keep the satellite in the correct orbital position and keep antennas positioning in the right directions.
GPS satellites are potential targets for jamming, but satellite phone and television signals have also been subjected to jamming.
On July 31, the Soviets announced that they intended to launch a satellite by the fall of 1957.
The largest artificial satellite currently orbiting the Earth is the International Space Station.
Kazakhstan announced its intention to build their satellite independently, but lacking the adequate technology to construct it, the government had to place an order with Russia’s Khrunichev space technology center.
Polish and Bulgarian satellites had previously used Russian assistance.
about 560 satellites) are operational satellites, the rest are space debris.
The project succeeded, and Explorer 1 became the United States' first satellite on January 31, 1958.
By far this is the most common type of orbit with approximately 2456 artificial satellites orbiting the Earth.
Russia and the United States have also shot down satellites during the Cold War.
Fixed satellite services handle hundreds of billions of voice, data, and video transmission tasks across all countries and continents between certain points on the earth’s surface.
Both Russia and the United States have demonstrated ability to eliminate satellites.
The first artificial satellite was Sputnik 1, launched by the Soviet Union on October 4, 1957, and that started the whole Soviet Sputnik program, with Sergei Korolev as chief designer.
Some satellites with military missions may conduct espionage or carry weapons to destroy enemy warheads and satellites.
The structural subsystem provides the mechanical base structure, shields the satellite from extreme temperature changes and micro-meteorite damage, and controls the satellite’s spin functions.
Looking at the “anatomy” of a typical satellite, one discovers two modules.
The first satellite, Sputnik 1, was put into orbit around Earth and was therefore in geocentric orbit.