Early human habitations were often built next to water sources, and rivers doubled as a crude form of natural sewage disposal.
Such systems are usually avoided since they complicate and thereby reduce the efficiency of sewage treatment plants owing to their seasonality.
Design and sizing of sewage collection systems considers population served, commercial and industrial flows, flow peaking characteristics and wet weather flows.
The Indus architects designed sewage disposal systems on a large scale, building networks of brick effluent drains following the lines of the streets.
Historically, raw sewage was directed to a natural body of water, such as a river or ocean, where it would be diluted and dissipated.
The system of sewers is called sewerage or sewerage system in UK English and sewage system in U.S. English.
Sewage is the mainly liquid waste containing some solids produced by humans, typically consisting of washing water, urine, feces, laundry waste, and other material that goes down drains and toilets from households and industry.
Combined sewer systems are designed to transport both storm water runoff and sewage in the same pipe.
The sewage treatment involves three stages, called primary, secondary, and tertiary treatment.
A lot of sewage also includes some surface water from roofs or hard-standing areas.
At the intersection of two drains, the sewage planners installed cesspools with steps leading down into them, for periodic cleaning.
To prevent pollution of the environment by sewage, there need to be well-organized services that manage the collection, treatment, and recycling or safe disposal of sewage in the environment.
Sewage is created by residences, institutions, hospitals and commercial and industrial establishments.
Separate sanitary sewer systems are designed to transport sewage alone.
Sewage can also be collected by low pressure pumps and vacuum systems.
Sewage and wastewater is also disposed of to rivers, streams and the sea in many parts of the world.
A sewage system may convey the wastewater by gravity to a sewage treatment plant.
A sewer bed is a piece of land typically used by a municipality for the dumping of raw sewage.
Sewage systems capable of handling storm water are known as combined systems or combined sewers.
Sewage collection and treatment is typically subject to local, state, and federal regulations and standards.
Sewage treatment, or domestic wastewater treatment, is the process of removing contaminants from wastewater and household sewage, both runoff (effluents) and domestic.
Raw influent (sewage) includes household waste liquid from toilets, baths, showers, kitchens, sinks, and so forth that is disposed of via sewers.
The ancient cities of Harappa and Mohenjo-daro of the Indus Valley civilization constructed complex networks of brick-lined sewage drains from around 2600 BCE and also had outdoor flush toilets connected to this network.
A system of sewer pipes (sewers) collects sewage and takes it for treatment or disposal.