At the beginning of the ninth century, Transylvania, along with eastern Pannonia, was under the control of the First Bulgarian Empire.
Under Bocskai's successors, most notably Gabriel Bethlen and George I Rбkуczi, Transylvania passed through a golden age for many religious movements and for the arts and culture.
Due to the fact that Transylvania was now beyond the reach of Catholic religious authority, Protestant preaching such as Lutheranism and Calvinism were able to flourish in the region.
The Transylvanian Diet of 1659 codified the representation of the privileged nations in Transylvania's coat of arms.
Following this devastation, Transylvania was reorganized according to a class system of Estates, which established privileged groups (universitates) with power and influence in economic and political life, as well as along ethnic lines.
Other areas to the west and north, which also united with Romania in 1918 (inside the border established by peace treaties in 1919-20), are since that time widely considered part of Transylvania.
Transylvania is an ancient land, once the nucleus of the powerful Kingdom of Dacia.
Starting with the 10th century Magyar tribes slowly subdued Transylvania, which became part of the Kingdom of Hungary (eleventh–sixteenth century).
The general assembly (congregatio generalis) of the four Estates had few genuine legislative powers in Transylvania, but it sometimes took measures regarding order in the country.
Transylvania's seven counties were brought under the voivode's (count of Alba Iulia) rule in 1263.
A key figure to emerge in Transylvania in the first half of the fifteenth century was John Hunyadi (Iancu de Hunedoara), a native of Transylvania, born in a family of Romanian origins.
Transylvania is a Central European region located in the eastern half of the Carpathian Basin, in present-day central Romania.
The Transylvanian Christian bishopric and the comitatus system were organized.
Others regard the history of inter-cultural tolerance in Transylvania as too strong for a Kosovo-type conflict to occur.
Bounded in the east and south by the Carpathian mountain range, historic Transylvania extended in the west to the Apuseni Mountains.
During the Roman administration also Christianity entered in the current territory of Transylvania from the neighboring Roman provinces where, according to the tradition of the Romanian Orthodox Church, Saint Peter preached.
when, Rubobostes, a Dacian king from the territory of present-day Transylvania, undertook the control of the Carpathian basin by defeating the Celts who previously held the power in the region.
In 1568 the Edict of Turda proclaimed four religious expressions in Transylvania - Catholicism, Lutheranism, Calvinism and Unitarianism, while Orthodoxy, which was the confession of the Romanian population, was proclaimed as "tolerated" (tolerata).
The first heraldic representation of Transylvania is found on the coat of arms of Michael the Brave.
Following the publication of Emily Gerard's The Land Beyond the Forest (1888), Bram Stoker wrote his gothic horror novel Dracula in 1897, using Transylvania as a setting.
From 1711 onward, the princes of Transylvania were replaced with Austrian governors and in 1765 Transylvania was declared a grand principality.
Duke Glad ruled over the South-West of Transylvania, having authority over the Slavs and Vlachs, which consisted most of the population of mentioned regions at the time.
Outside Romania, Transylvania is strongly associated with Bram Stoker's novel Dracula while within Romania and Hungary the region is known for the scenic beauty of its Carpathian landscape and its rich history.
The seat of the Transylvanian Diet was itself moved to Sibiu for some time in the nineteenth century.
Due to the success of the latter work, Transylvania became associated in the English-speaking world with vampires.
After the defeat of the Ottomans at the Battle of Vienna in 1683, the Habsburgs gradually began to impose their rule on the formerly autonomous Transylvania.
The Bбthory family began to rule Transylvania as princes under the Ottomans in 1571, and briefly under Habsburg suzerainty until 1600.
Menumorut, a vassal of Byzantium ruled the lands between the River Tisza and the Ygfon Forest in the direction of Ultrasilvania (Transylvania), from the Mure? river to the Some? river.
The only possibility for Romanians to retain or access nobility in Hungarian Transylvania was through conversion to Catholicism.
Transylvania is rich in mineral resources, notably lignite, iron, lead, manganese, gold, copper, natural gas, salt and sulfur.
The new unity of Austria-Hungary created a process of Magyarization affecting Transylvania's Romanians and German Saxons.
The Unitarian Church of Transylvania, founded in 1568, is considered to be one of the oldest of the modern Unitarian movement.
Transylvania was slowly conquered by the Magyar tribes, during a period of 300 years.
Transylvania has been home to a variety of ethnic groups, which have traditionally lived together in harmony.
After the Ottoman Sultan Suleiman the Magnificent overran central Hungary, Transylvania became a semi-independent principality where Austrian and Turkish influences vied for supremacy for nearly two centuries.
Transylvania accounts for around 35 percent of Romania's GDP, and has a GDP per capita (PPP) of around $11,500, around 10 percent higher than the Romanian average.
In 1243, Jerusalem again came under Christian rule, and the walls were repaired.
Transylvania became one of the few European States where Roman Catholics, Calvinists, Lutheranss and Unitarians lived in peace, although Orthodox Romanians continued to be denied equal recognition.
Some of Transylvania's historical communities are, however, agitating for greater autonomy within Romania.
The 300-year long special separate status came to an end by the Austro-Hungarian Compromise of 1867, which established the dual monarchy and reincorporated Transylvania into the Kingdom of Hungary.
After World War II and especially after the fall of Communism, Transylvania lost almost all of the German-speaking population, most of them left for Germany.
The 2002 Romanian census classified Transylvania as the entire region of Romania west of the Carpathians.
The early eleventh century was marked by the conflict between Stephen I of Hungary and his uncle Gyula, the ruler of Transylvania.
The new province was divided under Hadrian: Dacia Superior, that corresponded roughly to Transylvania and Dacia Inferior, similar to the region of South Romania (Walachia).
Lovatt says that regardless of a persons ethnic origin, a distinctive "'Transylvanian identity' is developing.
In August 1940, the second Vienna Award granted the northern half of Transylvania to Hungary.
The latter period of their rule saw a four-sided conflict in Transylvania involving the Transylvanian Bбthorys, the emerging Austrian Empire, the Ottoman Empire, and the Romanian voivoideship (province) of Wallachia.
The Hungarian ruler was successful in these wars, and Transylvania was incorporated into the Christian Kingdom of Hungary.
The ethnic Hungarian population of Transylvania, largely composed of Szйkely, form a majority in the counties of Covasna and Harghita.
The department of the interior inherited the responsibilities of the Transylvanian Gubernium, and the government reserved the right to name Transylvania's royal magistrates as well the Saxon bailiff of the Universitas Saxorum.
The Transylvanian plateau, 300 to 500 meters (1,000-1,600 feet) high, is drained by the Mure?, Some?, Cri?, and Olt rivers, as well as other tributaries of the Danube.
The so-called Transylvanian trilogy of historical novels by Miklos Banffy, The Writing on the Wall, is an extended treatment of the nineteenth and early twentieth century social and political history of the country.
Gelou (Gelu in Romanian, Gyalu in Hungarian) leader of the Vlachs (ancient Romanians )and Slavs in Transylvania was ruling over the Middle part of Transylvania and had his capital at D?bвca.
The German name Siebenbьrgen means "seven fortresses," after the seven (ethnic German) Transylvanian Saxons' cities in the region (Kronstadt, SchдЯburg, Mediasch, Hermannstadt, Mьhlbach, Bistritz and Klausenburg).
Having quashed the revolution, Austria imposed a repressive regime on Hungary, ruled Transylvania directly through a military governor and granted citizenship to the Romanians.