In Zen Buddhism, truth become available not through conceptual understanding but through the experience of "enlightenment."
Consensus theory holds that truth is whatever is agreed upon, or in some versions, might come to be agreed upon, by some specified group.
Vico's epistemological orientation gathers the most diverse rays and unfolds in one axiom—verum ipsum factum—"truth itself is constructed."
Socrates, Plato's and Aristotle's ideas about truth are commonly seen as consistent with correspondence theory.
Among the theoretical concerns of these views is to explain away those special cases where it does appear that the concept of truth has peculiar and interesting properties.
Truth is also understood not only as a matter of conceptual understanding, but as an issue of embodiment, which involves an existential way of being, religious experience, or way of living.
Gandhi dedicated his life to the wider purpose of discovering truth, or Satya.
The Four Noble Truths are the most fundamental Buddhist teachings and appear countless times throughout the most ancient Buddhist texts, the Pali Canon.
Here he restricted it in this way: no language could contain its own truth predicate, that is, the expression is true could only apply to sentences in some other language.
According to the redundancy theory of truth, asserting that a statement is true is completely equivalent to asserting the statement itself.
An example is in Jesus' words "I am the truth" that indicate an inseparable relationship between truth and human existence.
The logical progression or connection of this line of thought is to conclude that truth can lie, since half-truths are deceptive and may lead to a false conclusion.
The central person in Christianity, Jesus, claimed to be "Truth" when he said, "I am the Way and the Truth and the Life; no one comes to the Father but through me.
Thomas Aquinas said that veritas est adжquatio intellectus et rei, truth is the conformity of the intellect to the things, an elegant re-statement of Aristotle's view.
Anekantavada works around the limitations of a one-sided view of truth by proposing multiple vantage points (nayas) from which truth can be viewed (cf.
Objective vertigo is when the surroundings will appear to move past a person's field of vision.
Only when human being restored its "authentic" mode of existence, human being becomes a being where truth is manifested.
Within the system of syadvada, each truth is qualified to its particular view-point; that is "in a certain way," one claim or another or both may be true.
The meaning of the word truth extends from honesty, good faith, and sincerity in general, to agreement with fact or reality in particular.
Such unification takes form not only in knowing but in the valuing (of truth) that directs knowing, the willing that directs action, and the feeling or emotive reach that directs sensing.
The truth of one's existence is a living, inward, and subjective experience that is always in the process of becoming.
Reform Judaism takes a much more liberal approach to truth.
Assertions of truth based upon history, revelation and testimony set forward in the Bible are central to Christian beliefs.
Social constructivism holds that truth is constructed by social processes, is historically and culturally specific, and that it is in part shaped through the power struggles within a community.
Alfred North Whitehead a British mathematician who became an American philosopher, said: "There are no whole truths; all truths are half-truths.
Some scholars regard Nietzsche's 1873 unpublished essay, "On Truth and Lies in a Nonmoral Sense" ("Ьber Wahrheit und Lьge im auЯermoralischen Sinn") as a keystone in his thought.
The reason for his restriction was that languages that contain their own truth predicate will contain paradoxical sentences like the Liar: This sentence is not true.
The accusations against her were probably nothing more than unproven slanders, but the whole experience was very bitter for Pericles.
A number of philosophers reject the thesis that the concept or term truth refers to a real property of sentences or propositions.
Some denominations have asserted additional authorities as sources of doctrinal truth — for instance, in Roman Catholicism the Pope is asserted to be infallible on matters of church doctrine.
Gandhi summarized his beliefs first when he said "God is Truth."
Immanuel Kant discussed the correspondence theory of truth in the following manner.
A pervasive tenet of coherence theories is the idea that truth is primarily a property of whole systems of propositions, and can be ascribed to individual propositions only according to their coherence with the whole.
Rather, Ramanuja prescribed that one should dedicate and surrender oneself to the personal God in a process called bhakti (or "loving devotion").
Fromm can be understood to define truth as a functional approximation of reality.
Some example simulacra that Baudrillard cites are: that prisons simulate the "truth" that society is free; scandals (e.g., Watergate) simulate that corruption is corrected; Disney simulates that the U.S. itself is an adult place.
The ancient Greek origins of the words "true" and "truth" have some consistent definitions throughout great spans of history that were often associated with topics of logic, geometry, mathematics, deduction, induction, and natural philosophy.
Historically, with the nineteenth century development of Boolean algebra mathematical models of logic began to treat "truth," also represented as "T" or "1," as an arbitrary constant.
The Roman Catholic Church holds that it has a continuous teaching authority, magisterium, which preserves the definitive, i.e.. the truthful, understanding of scripture.
Each of the five substantive theories below deal with truth as something with a nature, a phenomenon, or thing, or type of human experience about which significant things can be said.
At best, these truths can only provide a severely narrowed perspective that has little to do with one's actual experience of life.
The three most influential forms of the pragmatic theory of truth were introduced around the turn of the twentieth century by Charles S. Peirce, William James, and John Dewey.
Saul Kripke contends that a natural language can in fact contain its own truth predicate without giving rise to contradiction.
The values, morals, and spiritual approaches a person adopts, while not denying the existence of objective truths of those beliefs, can only become truly known when they have been inwardly appropriated through subjective experience.
English truth is from Old English trнewю, trйowю, trэwю, Middle English trewюe, cognate to Old High German triuwida, Old Norse tryggр.
Jean Baudrillard considers truth to be largely simulated, that is pretending to have something, as opposed to dissimulation, pretending to not have something.
Truth for Foucault is also something that shifts through various episteme throughout history.
All Germanic languages besides English have introduced a terminological distinction between truth "fidelity" and truth "factuality."
Erich Fromm finds that trying to discuss truth as "absolute truth" is sterile and that emphasis ought to be placed on "optimal truth."
Truth, for Michel Foucault, is problematic when any attempt is made to see truth as an "objective" quality.
Theoretical knowledge and truth, including the correspondence of knowledge and reality, become possible due to man's ontological openness to truth.
Hegel, Garns, and Marx were among the other early proponents of the premise that truth is socially constructed.
Recognizing that there are multiple possible truths about any particular thing, even mutually exclusive truths, Jain philosophers developed a system for synthesizing these various claims, known as syadvada.
Truth is said to consist in the agreement of knowledge with the object.
Donald Davidson used it as the foundation of his truth-conditional semantics and linked it to radical interpretation in a form of coherentism.
Heidegger tried to conceptualize the process of disclosure of truth by tying it to man's modes, authentic or inauthentic, of being.
Friedrich Nietzsche believed the search for truth or 'the will to truth' was a consequence of the will to power of philosophers.
Sojourner Truth (born Isabella Baumfree, c. 1797 to November 26, 1883) was an African-American abolitionist and women's rights activist best-known for her speech on racial inequalities, "Ain't I a Woman?", delivered extemporaneously in 1851 at the Ohio Women's Rights Convention.
Sojourner Truth's given name was Isabella Baumfree. She was born a slave in Ulster County, New York. She became free in 1828 under a New York law that banned slavery. She was a deeply religious woman who believed that she was on a holy mission against slavery. She took the name Sojourner Truth which means "traveler."
Timeline Description: Sojourner Truth was born a slave but she escaped slavery in 1826. She became a supporter of both women's rights and abolition, or the fight to end slavery. At a women's rights convention in Ohio in 1851, she gave one of her most famous speeches, called "Ain't I a Woman."