Another wisdom researcher, sociologist Monika Ardelt, has developed a "Three-Dimensional Wisdom Scale," a test that individuals can take for a numerical assessment of their wisdom on a scale of one to five.
Beginning with the ancient Greeks, European cultures associate wisdom with virtue.
The apostle Paul states that worldly wisdom thinks the claims of Christ to be foolishness.
Applications of personal wisdom include one's ethical and social guidelines in life that determines one’s unique personality, short and long-term goal(s) pursued in life (spiritual or materialistic for example), perspective on life, and social attitudes.
Confucius stated that wisdom can be learned by three methods: Reflection (the noblest), imitation (the easiest), and experience (the bitterest).
Allah gives life to the hearts with the light of wisdom as Allah gives life to the dead earth with the abundant rain of the sky.
The number of academic publications about wisdom increased significantly from 1984 to 2000.
Wisdom is also represented by the sense of justice of the lawful and wise king Solomon, who asks God for wisdom in 1 Kings 3.
Proverbs 9:10 says: "The fear of the Lord is the beginning of wisdom," and 8:13 "To fear the Lord is to hate evil."
Metis and Athene are associated with wisdom from earliest times.
Plato's dialogues mention the virtue of wisdom, as knowledge about the "Good" and the courage to act accordingly.
According to Doctrine of the Mean, Confucius also said, "Love of learning is akin to wisdom.
The prophets and apostles urged kindness to slaves, but the Bible states that slave owners may not be punished for beating their slaves, as long as they are not beaten to death (Exodus 21:20-21).
The Catholic and Orthodox deuterocanonical books of the Bible include the Book of Wisdom (Wisdom of Solomon).
Psychologists have gathered data on commonly held beliefs or folk theories about wisdom.
Most psychologists regard wisdom as distinct from the cognitive abilities measured by standardized intelligence tests.
Wisdom is a type of knowledge, similar to phronesis, that includes judgment for its proper applications to a given situation.
The status of wisdom as a virtue is recognized in various cultural, philosophical, and religious traditions.
Personality theorist Erik Erikson related wisdom to the last stage of his eight-stage theory of psychosocial development.