Chapter 5 uses xiansheng three times in a conversation set between legendary rulers Tang (?) of the Shang Dynasty and Ji (?) of the Xia Dynasty.
contains xian (?) once and xian (?) twice, reflecting the disparate origins of the text.
The possible linguistic etymology of xian is Sino-Tibetan "shaman;" and the possible etymology of the character ? is "ascend" or "mountain."
The Shenxian zhuan (???; Biographies of Spirit Immortals) is a hagiography of xian.
The three poems quoted above are variations describing Daoist xian.
According to Dr. Victor H. Mair, a specialist in early Chinese vernacular, xian as described in Chinese texts were impervious to heat or cold, unaffected by the elements, and possessed the ability to fly.
In Chinese art, xian are often pictured with symbols of immortality including the dragon, crane, fox, white deer, pine tree, peach, and mushroom.
Xian (Chinese: ?/?/?; pinyin: xi?n; Wade-Giles: hsien) is a Chinese word for an enlightened person or “immortal."
Over the centuries, the term "xian" came to refer to beings with supernatural powers, but some scholars believe that the early Taoist "xian" referred to a person who was one with the Tao.
Without using the word xian, several Zhuangzi passages employ xian imagery, such as flying in the clouds, to describe individuals with superhuman powers.
The Eight Immortals (Chinese: ??; pinyin: B?xi?n; Wade-Giles: Pa-hsien) are a group of legendary xian in Chinese mythology, first described in the Yuan Dynasty.
Xian (?) occurs in the Chunqiu Fanlu, Fengsu Tongyi, Qian fu lun, Fayan, and Shenjian; xian (?) occurs in the Caizhong langji, Fengsu Tongyi, Guanzi, and Shenjian.
Semantically, Xian evolved from meaning spiritual "immortality; enlightenment," to physical "immortality; longevity" attained through practices such as alchemy, breath meditation, and Tai chi chuan, and eventually to legendary and figurative "immortality."
used xian immortals and magic islands allegorically to describe spiritual immortality.
Early Zhuangzi, Chuci, and Liezi texts used xian immortals and magic islands allegorically to describe spiritual immortality.
Some other Chuci poems refer to immortals with synonyms of xian.
Later texts like the Shenxian zhuan and Baopuzi took immortality literally and described esoteric Chinese alchemical techniques believed to increase physical longevity.
According to the Digital Dictionary of Buddhism, Chinese xian (?) can mean Sanskrit ??i (rishi "inspired sage in the Vedas").