Yttrium (chemical symbol Y, atomic number 39) is a lustrous, silvery metal that is found in most rare-earth minerals.
Interestingly, lunar rock samples retrieved by Apollo space missions were found to have a relatively high content of yttrium.
In 1828, Friedrich Wцhler isolated yttrium by reducing anhydrous yttrium chloride (YCl3) with potassium.
Potentially, yttrium can be used in ceramic and glass formulas, since yttrium oxide has a high melting point and imparts shock resistance and low thermal expansion characteristics to glass.
Natural yttrium is composed of only one isotope, Y-89, which is stable.
Yttrium iron garnet is an effective microwave filter, and yttrium aluminum garnet is used as a gemstone.
Yttrium has been studied for possible use as a nodulizer in the production of nodular cast iron, which has increased ductility.
Yttrium was discovered by Finnish chemist, physicist, and mineralogist Johan Gadolin in 1794.
Yttrium is at the start of the series of transition metals in period 5 of the periodic table and is located between strontium and zirconium.
When yttrium is finely divided, it is very unstable in air.
Yttrium and yttria were named after this village.
Yttrium is also used as a catalyst for certain reactions and in gas mantles for propane lanterns.
Yttrium occurs in nature in almost all rare-earth minerals and uranium ores, but never as a free element.
The common oxidation state of yttrium is +3.