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Types of Adjuvants

Alum
Alum

An adjuvant is a substance that is added to a vaccine to increase the body’s immune response to the vaccine. Vaccines containing adjuvants are tested for safety in clinical trials before they are licensed for use in the United States, and they are continuously monitored by CDC and FDA.

source: cdc.gov
Analgesic Adjuvants
Analgesic Adjuvants

An adjuvant analgesic is a medication that is not primarily designed to control pain but can be used for this purpose. Some examples of adjuvant drugs are medications like antidepressants and anticonvulsants.

image: medscape.org
Bacterial Products
Bacterial Products

Chemicals commonly used in the production of vaccines include a suspending fluid (sterile water, saline, or fluids containing protein); preservatives and stabilizers (for example, albumin, phenols, and glycine); and adjuvants or enhancers that help improve the vaccine’s effectiveness. Vaccines also may contain very small amounts of the culture material used to grow the virus or bacteria used in the vaccine, such as chicken egg protein.

source: cdc.gov
Cytokines
Cytokines

There is a compelling clinical need for adjuvants suitable for human use to enhance the efficacy of vaccines in the prevention of life-threatening infection. Candidate populations for such vaccine-adjuvant strategies include normal individuals at the two extremes of life, as well as the ever ...

Delivery Systems: Detergents (Quil A)
Delivery Systems: Detergents (Quil A)

Up to now, different exogenous adjuvants have been identified to boost immune responses including inorganic compounds, mineral oil, bacterial products, non-bacterial organics, detergents or Quil A, plant saponins, Freund’s complete or incomplete adjuvants, and delivery systems.

Inorganic Compounds
Inorganic Compounds

Immune responses are important in preventing infection and cancer, and there is therefore a strong interest in compounds which can boost immune responses. Vaccines typically contain antigens from a pathogen or tumour, together with an adjuvant that boosts the immune response.

Mineral oil: Paraffin oil
Mineral oil: Paraffin oil

The name mineral oil by itself is not very correct, because is used to mark many specific oils. Other names, similarly imprecise, include liquid paraffin, pariffinum liquidum and liquid petroleum. A mineral oil in this sense is oil composed mainly of alkanes and cyclic paraffins. One of the three basic classes of refined mineral oils is paraffinic oils, based on n-alkanes. Although, close by their composition, mineral oil is used often as an insulator.

Virosomes
Virosomes

A virosome is a drug or vaccine delivery mechanism consisting of unilamellar phospholipid membrane (either a mono- or bi-layer) vesicle incorporating virus derived proteins to allow the virosomes to fuse with target cells.