Thanks to device drivers, most software programs don't need to know how to work directly with hardware, and a driver doesn't need to include a full application experience for users to interact with. Instead, the program and driver simply need to know how to interface with each other.
From 2000 and until approximately 2010, middleware software was synonymous with the concept of an application server. However, as cloud computing increases in popularity and microservices replace more monolithic SOA-based systems, middleware is changing.
In computing, a shell is a user interface for access to an operating system's services. In general, operating system shells use either a command-line interface (CLI) or graphical user interface (GUI), depending on a computer's role and particular operation.
Utility software helps the user to control, manage, and maintain a computer's operating system, hardware and application software. These programs are designed to perform specific functions like finding files, backing up data, playing multimedia files, viewing images and so on.