There are two main categories of birth defects. Structural Birth Defects. Structural birth defects are related to a problem with the structure of body parts. These can include: Cleft lip or cleft palate; Heart defects, such as missing or misshaped valves; Abnormal limbs, such as a clubfoot
There are some birth defects, however, that will not be detected by either amniocentesis or ultrasound. If you are having an amniocentesis, you may ask to find out the baby's sex; amniocentesis is the most accurate way to determine the baby's gender before birth.
Chorionic villus sampling (CVS) is a prenatal test that is used to detect birth defects, genetic diseases, and other problems during pregnancy. During the test, a small sample of cells (called chorionic villi) is taken from the placenta where it attaches to the wall of the uterus.
Cleft lip and cleft palate are birth defects that occur when a baby’s lip or mouth do not form properly during pregnancy. Together, these birth defects commonly are called “orofacial clefts”. What is Cleft Lip? The lip forms between the fourth and seventh weeks of pregnancy.
Percutaneous umbilical cord blood sampling (PUBS), also called cordocentesis, fetal blood sampling, or umbilical vein sampling is a diagnostic genetic test that examines blood from the fetal umbilical cord to detect fetal abnormalities. Fetal and maternal blood supply are typically connected in utero with one vein and two arteries to the fetus.
Congenital defects, both major and minor, occur in around three percent of all births. Of these, roughly three out of four will be detected by ultrasound. The accuracy of these tests, however, is closely related to the stage and type of pregnancy involved.