Movement types are generally paired, with one being the opposite of the other. Body movements are always described in relation to the anatomical position of the body: upright stance, with upper limbs to the side of body and palms facing forward. Refer to Figure 1 as you go through this section.
Dorsiflexion and plantar flexion are movements at the ankle joint, which is a hinge joint. Lifting the front of the foot, so that the top of the foot moves toward the anterior leg is dorsiflexion, while lifting the heel of the foot from the ground or pointing the toes downward is plantar flexion.
Pronation is a movement that can be performed by the lower-arm / wrist and also by the ankle / foot. The action of pronation can be described for each: pronation of the forearm = rotation of the forearm turning the palm of the hand inwards towards the body , i.e. turning the palm inferiorly or posteriorly (the opposite of supination of the forearm).