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Types of Brain Damage

Concussion
Concussion

When you sustain a concussion, the impact can jolt your brain. Sometimes, it literally causes it to move around in your head. Traumatic brain injuries can cause bruising, damage to the blood vessels, and injury to the nerves.

source: webmd.com
Contusions
Contusions

An accident or injury to the brain can lead to a brain contusion. A contusion is essentially a bruise that affects the tissue of the brain. The prognosis of the condition is usually good, and patients can lead long and happy lives after receiving a diagnosis.

Coup/Contrecoup Lesions
Coup/Contrecoup Lesions

Coup and contrecoup injuries are considered focal brain injuries – those that occur in a particular spot in the brain – as opposed to diffuse injuries, which occur over a more widespread area. Diffuse axonal injury is the most prevalent pathology of coup contrecoup.

image: reddit.com
Diffuse Axonal Injury
Diffuse Axonal Injury

Diffuse axonal injury (DAI) is a brain injury in which extensive lesions in white matter tracts occur over a widespread area. DAI is one of the most common and devastating types of traumatic brain injury, and is a major cause of unconsciousness and persistent vegetative state after severe head trauma.

Edema
Edema

What Is Brain Swelling? Brain swelling goes by many names: Brain edema; Elevated intracranial pressure; Cerebral edema; Swelling can occur in specific locations or throughout the brain. It depends on the cause. Wherever it occurs, brain swelling increases pressure inside the skull. That's known as intracranial pressure, or ICP.

source: webmd.com
image: quazoo.com
Hematoma
Hematoma

A subdural hematoma is a collection of blood outside the brain. Subdural hematomas are usually caused by severe head injuries. The bleeding and increased pressure on the brain from a subdural hematoma can be life-threatening.

source: webmd.com
Hemorrhage A Hemorrhage is Uncontrolled Bleeding
Hemorrhage A Hemorrhage is Uncontrolled Bleeding

Bleeding of the brain. The brain is wrapped in a net (meninges). The meninges can be broken up into 3 layers: Dura mater, Arachnoid and Pia Mater. There is vasculature within all these layers. Stating someone has a brain hemorrhage alone is not very informative.

source: quora.com
Skull Fracture
Skull Fracture

A skull fracture is any break in the cranial bone, also known as the skull. There are many types of skull fractures, but only one major cause: an impact or a blow to the head that’s strong enough to break the bone. An injury to the brain can also accompany the fracture, but that’s not always the case. A fracture isn’t always easy to see.

Skull Fractures
Skull Fractures

A skull fracture is any break in the cranial bone, also known as the skull. There are many types of skull fractures, but only one major cause: an impact or a blow to the head that’s strong enough to break the bone. An injury to the brain can also accompany the fracture, but that’s not always the case. A fracture isn’t always easy to see.