Hyperpnea or hyperpnoea is increased depth and rate of breathing. It may be physiologic—as when required to meet metabolic demand of body tissues (for example, during or after exercise, or when the body lacks oxygen at high altitude or as a result of anemia)—or it may be pathologic, as when sepsis is severe.
Hyperventilation is a condition in which you start to breathe very fast. Healthy breathing occurs with a healthy balance between breathing in oxygen and breathing out carbon dioxide. You upset this balance when you hyperventilate by exhaling more than you inhale. This causes a rapid reduction in carbon dioxide in the body.
Hypoventilation can happen when breathing is too slow or too shallow. Hypoventilation is usually secondary to other conditions, meaning other conditions lead to it. Some of these include COPD, chest wall deformities, central respiratory drive depression, obesity, neuromuscular disorders, myxedema, and trauma.
Orthopnea is the name doctors use for the symptom of dyspnea (shortness of breath) that occurs when a person la lying flat. Orthopnea is considered an important symptom mainly because it is often a sign of worsening heart failure, but it can also be caused by other medical conditions. For this reason, anyone who experiences orthopnea should always be evaluated by a physician.
Tachypnea is the medical term for rapid and shallow breathing, often confused with hyperventilation, which is breathing that is rapid but deep. Both disorders are caused by a buildup of carbon dioxide in the lungs, which causes a buildup of carbon dioxide in the bloodstream.