Breathing Pattern Disorder, Hyperventilation, Overbreathing Breathing Pattern Disorder (BPD) is a combination of individual symptoms which, on their own, may all be attributed to other causes, but collectively, may make up a breathing pattern disorder.
Gradual increase in volume and frequency, followed by a gradual decrease in volume and frequency, with apnea periods of 10 - 30 seconds between cycle. Described as a crescendo - decrescendo pattern. Characterized by cyclic waxing and waning ventilation with apnea gradually giving way to hyperpneic breathing.
Orthopnea or orthopnoea is shortness of breath (dyspnea) that occurs when lying flat, causing the person to have to sleep propped up in bed or sitting in a chair. It is commonly seen as a late manifestation of heart failure, resulting from fluid redistribution into the central circulation, causing an increase in pulmonary capillary pressure.
As the breathing pattern deteriorates, it merges with the Agonal breathing. 25. AGONAL BREATHING : shallow & very slow inspirations (about 3-4 breaths/min.) followed by irregular pauses of apnea. Characterized by gasping, labored breathing, accompanied by strange vocalizations.