Bronchiectasis is derived from the Greek words: Bronckos – airway Ectasis – widening It is a chronic lung condition, defined as the abnormal, irreversible dilatation of the bronchi (Fig. 1), where the elastic and muscular tissue is destroyed by acute or chronic inflammation and infection.
Bronchiectasis, which is a part of cystic fibrosis lung disease, also can occur for other reasons. Bronchiectasis is permanent dilatation and obstruction of the airway wall. Potential causes include, but are not limited to: immunodeficiency, post infectious, and congenital abnormalities.
This disease leads to almost half of the cases of bronchiectasis in the United States. Immunodeficiency disorders, such as common variable immunodeficiency and, less often, HIV and AIDS. Allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis. This is an allergic reaction to a fungus called aspergillus. The reaction causes swelling in the airways.
Primary ciliary dyskinesia (PCD), also called immotile ciliary syndrome or Kartagener syndrome, is a rare, ciliopathic, autosomal recessive genetic disorder that causes defects in the action of cilia lining the respiratory tract (lower and upper, sinuses, Eustachian tube, middle ear), fallopian tube, and flagella of sperm cells.
Bronchiectasis usually is the result of an infection or other condition that injures the walls of your airways or prevents the airways from clearing mucus. Mucus is a slimy substance that the airways produce to help remove inhaled dust, bacteria, and other small particles.