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Types of Childhood Cancer

Anemia
Anemia

Anemia is a common problem for cancer patients, especially those who get chemotherapy. Read about the link between the two conditions and how cancer-related anemia is treated. Anemia is a common problem for cancer patients, especially those who get chemotherapy.

Bone and Joint Pain
Bone and Joint Pain

They account for about 30% of all cancers in children. The most common types in children are acute lymphocytic leukemia (ALL) and acute myelogenous leukemia (AML). These leukemias can cause bone and joint pain, fatigue, weakness, pale skin, bleeding or bruising, fever, weight loss, and other symptoms.

source: cancer.org
Bone Cancer (Including Osteosarcoma and Ewing Sarcoma)
Bone Cancer (Including Osteosarcoma and Ewing Sarcoma)

Bone cancer is rare and includes several types. Some bone cancers, including osteosarcoma and Ewing sarcoma, are seen most often in children and young adults. Explore the links on this page to learn about bone cancer treatment, statistics, research, and clinical trials.

source: cancer.gov
Brain and Spinal Cord Tumors
Brain and Spinal Cord Tumors

Children with brain or spinal cord tumors should have their treatment planned by a team of health care providers who are experts in treating childhood brain and spinal cord tumors. Childhood brain and spinal cord tumors may cause signs or symptoms that begin before the cancer is diagnosed and continue for months or years.

source: cancer.gov
image: cancer.gov
Bruising and Bleeding
Bruising and Bleeding

Some cancer treatments, such as chemotherapy and targeted therapy, can increase your risk of bleeding and bruising. These treatments can lower the number of platelets in the blood. Platelets are the cells that help your blood to clot and stop bleeding.

source: cancer.gov
Frequent Infections
Frequent Infections

However, some symptoms of cancer (such as fever, swollen glands, frequent infections, anemia, or bruises) can happen with other childhood infections or conditions that are more common than cancer. Because of this, both doctors and parents might suspect other childhood illnesses when cancer symptoms first appear.

Leukemia
Leukemia

For information about the differences between childhood cancers and adult cancers, see Cancer in Children. Leukemia is a cancer that starts in early blood-forming cells found in the bone marrow, the soft inner part of certain bones.

source: cancer.org
Lymphoma (Including Both Hodgkin and non-Hodgkin)
Lymphoma (Including Both Hodgkin and non-Hodgkin)

Non-Hodgkin lymphoma (also known as non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma, NHL, or sometimes just lymphoma) is a cancer that starts in white blood cells called lymphocytes, which are part of the body’s immune system.

source: cancer.org
Neuroblastoma
Neuroblastoma

Neuroblastoma is a type of childhood cancer that develops in nerve tissue outside of the central nervous system. It usually begins in the adrenal gland on top of the kidney, but it can be found anywhere along the spine.

Retinoblastoma
Retinoblastoma

Retinoblastoma is a cancer of the eye that occurs only in children, and typically in very young children. Two-thirds of retinoblastoma patients are diagnosed before they are 2 years old, and more than 90% are diagnosed before the age of 5.

Rhabdomyosarcoma
Rhabdomyosarcoma

Childhood rhabdomyosarcoma is a disease in which malignant (cancer) cells form in muscle tissue. Certain genetic conditions increase the risk of childhood rhabdomyosarcoma. A sign of childhood rhabdomyosarcoma is a lump or swelling that keeps getting bigger.

source: cancer.gov
Stomachache and Poor Appetite
Stomachache and Poor Appetite

Stomachache and poor appetite A child with leukemia may complain of a stomachache. This is because leukemia cells can accumulate in the spleen, liver, and kidneys, causing them to enlarge.

Swelling
Swelling

Brain and central nervous system tumors are the second most common cancers in children, making up about 26% of childhood cancers. There are many types of brain tumors, and the treatment and outlook for each is different. Most brain tumors in children start in the lower parts of the brain, such as the cerebellum or brain stem.

source: cancer.org
Trouble Breathing
Trouble Breathing

These problems can cause a host of symptoms such as nasal congestion, runny nose, itchy or watery eyes, chest congestion, cough, wheezing, labored breathing, and shallow breathing. The nasal passage is a pathway for viruses and allergens to enter your lungs.

source: webmd.com
image: cultua.info
Wilms Tumor
Wilms Tumor

Wilms tumor (also called Wilms’ tumor or nephroblastoma) is a type of cancer that starts in the kidneys. It is the most common type of kidney cancer in children. It is named after Max Wilms, a German doctor who wrote one of the first medical articles about the disease in 1899.

source: cancer.org