Ewing sarcoma is a type of childhood cancer that is most frequently found in children and adolescents between the ages of 10 and 20 years old. Ewing sarcoma — the second most common bone cancer after osteosarcoma — often originates in the long, large bones of the body, including the hip, thigh, shin, chest, and arm bones.
To understand brain and spinal cord tumors, it helps to know about the normal structure and function of the central nervous system (CNS), which is the medical name for the brain and spinal cord. The brain is the center of thought, feeling, memory, speech, vision, hearing, movement, and much more.
Chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML): This leukemia rarely occurs in children. Treatment is similar to that used for adults (see “ Treatment of children with chronic myelogenous leukemia”). For more detailed information on CML, see Leukemia--Chronic Myeloid. Chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL): This leukemia is extremely rare in children. For more information on CLL, see Leukemia--Chronic Lymphocytic.
An enlarged lymph node in a child is not usually a sign of a serious problem. Lymph nodes in the neck are often enlarged in children with sore throats or colds. But a large lymph node is also the most common sign of lymphoma. This is discussed more in Signs and Symptoms of Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma in Children.
Rarely, a neuroblastoma has spread so widely by the time it is found that doctors can’t tell exactly where it started. Some neuroblastomas grow and spread quickly, while others grow slowly. Sometimes, in very young children, the cancer cells die for no reason and the tumor goes away on its own.
Wilms tumor (also called Wilms’ tumor or nephroblastoma) is a type of cancer that starts in the kidneys. It is the most common type of kidney cancer in children. It is named after Max Wilms, a German doctor who wrote one of the first medical articles about the disease in 1899.