Bittersweet chocolate is often now labeled "dark chocolate" and clearly lists the percentage of chocolate. That percentage tells you how sweet the chocolate will be: chocolate labeled "70% chocolate" contains 30% sugar, "60% chocolate" contains 40% sugar, and so on.
When caramel has cooled and set, cut into 1 inch squares. Chill in refrigerator until firm. Melt chocolate with 1 tablespoon butter in the top of a double boiler or in a bowl in the microwave. Stir until smooth. Dip caramel squares in chocolate and place on wax paper to cool.
The ^M is a carriage-return character. If you see this, you're probably looking at a file that originated in the DOS/Windows world, where an end-of-line is marked by a carriage return/newline pair, whereas in the Unix world, end-of-line is marked by a single newline. Read this article for more detail, and also the Wikipedia entry for newline.
Milk chocolate is solid chocolate made with milk added in the form of milk powder, liquid milk, or condensed milk. In 1875, Swiss confectioner Daniel Peter, in cooperation with his neighbour Henri Nestlé in Vevey, developed the first solid milk chocolate using condensed milk.
Crafting milk chocolate is a labour of love, with three main stages: First, chocolate producers blend milk ingredients and sugar and gently mix them with chocolate liquor and cocoa powder. The mixture is dried and becomes a milk chocolate crumbly powder.
The pre-melted unsweetened chocolate you mention, sold by Nestle under the brand name Choco Bake, is available at many grocery stores. If you can't find it in your area, you can substitute 3 tablespoons baking cocoa and 1 tablespoon shortening for each packet of pre-melted unsweetened chocolate called for in a recipe.
Semisweet chocolate chips are a standard ingredient in most bakers’ kitchens. They are the standard for baking chocolate chip cookies, one of the most popular homemade treats out there, as well as for many other baking applications. Semisweet chocolate is typically labeled as just that: semisweet chocolate.
Stracciatella is a term used for three different types of Italian food: Stracciatella (soup), an egg drop soup popular in central Italy. Stracciatella (ice cream), a gelato variety with chocolate flakes, inspired by the soup. Stracciatella di bufala, a variety of soft Italian buffalo cheese from the Apulia region.
Unsweetened chocolate is chocolate in one of its simplest forms, a solid chocolate made with just cocoa solids and cocoa butter. The natural fat content of a cacao bean is 52-55%, which is typically the amount of fat (cocoa butter) found in unsweetened chocolate.
White chocolate is a chocolate derivative. It commonly consists of cocoa butter, sugar and milk solids and is characterized by a pale yellow or ivory appearance. The melting point of cocoa butter, its primary cocoa bean component, is high enough to keep white chocolate solid at room temperature.
To create white chocolate, the cocoa butter is combined with milk, sugar, and other flavoring ingredients, but none of the cocoa bean is included. Some would consider white chocolate not chocolate because none of the cocoa solid is part of the end product.