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Types of Clinical Trials

Case Reports and Series
Case Reports and Series

Given their intrinsic methodological limitations, including lack of statistical sampling, case reports are placed at the foot of the hierarchy of clinical evidence, together with case series. Nevertheless, case reports do have genuinely useful roles in medical research and evidence-based medicine.

Case-Control Study
Case-Control Study

A case-control study, like other medical research, can help scientists find new medications and treatments. Find out how 'cases' are compared with 'controls' in this type of study. This type of study is a relatively quick and easy way to find evidence, but it has scientific limitations.

Cohort Study (Prospective Observational Study)
Cohort Study (Prospective Observational Study)

They can be prospective studies and gather data going forward, or retrospective cohort studies, which look at data already collected. The Nurses' Health Study is one example of a large cohort study, and it has produced many important links between lifestyle choices and health by following hundreds of thousands of women across North America.

Cross-Sectional Study
Cross-Sectional Study

Video: Cross-Sectional Research: Definition & Examples Cross-sectional research is used to examine one variable in different groups that are similar in all other characteristics. Learn more about cross-sectional research in this lesson and test your knowledge with a quiz at the end.

source: study.com
Ideas, Editorials, Opinions
Ideas, Editorials, Opinions

ideas/editorials/opinions 8. Based on levels/categories of best evidence, list the strongest to weakest designs. Based on levels/categories of best evidence, list the strongest to weakest designs.

source: quizlet.com
Meta-Analysis
Meta-Analysis

Meta-analysis in clinical trials. DerSimonian R, Laird N. Comment in BMJ. 2016 May 04;353:i2156. This paper examines eight published reviews each reporting results from several related trials. Each review pools the results from the relevant trials in order to evaluate the efficacy of a certain treatment for a specified medical condition.

Randomized Controlled Trial
Randomized Controlled Trial

A randomized controlled trial (or randomized control trial; RCT) is a type of scientific (often medical) experiment which aims to reduce bias when testing a new treatment.

image: howmed.net
Systematic Review
Systematic Review

Systematic review and meta-analysis of clinical trials of the effects of low carbohydrate diets on cardiovascular risk factors. Santos FL(1), Esteves SS, da Costa Pereira A, Yancy WS Jr, Nunes JP. Author information: (1)Centro Hospitalar Vila Nova Gaia/Espinho, Gaia, Portugal Centro Hospitalar do Porto, Porto, Portugal.

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