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Types of Drivers

Database
Database

A database driver is a software that allows you to talk to your database from your application. There are language specific drivers such as JDBC, ODBC, OLE DB where the driver interface is implemented according to the language specifications so your application could interact with the database according to predefined specs.

source: quora.com
Database-Protocol Driver (Pure Java Driver) or Thin Driver
Database-Protocol Driver (Pure Java Driver) or Thin Driver

Java JDBC Driver with 4 types of JDBC drivers: ... Native-API driver, Network Protocol driver, Thin ... or indirectly into the vendor-specific database protocol.

Native-API Driver
Native-API Driver

The driver is called partly java because the java part of the driver calls the native library. This means that the native library must be at client side i.e. the place where the driver is used. In a web app the machince that hosts the web app is the client.

source: coderanch.com
Network-Protocol Driver (Middleware Driver)
Network-Protocol Driver (Middleware Driver)

Type 3 driver – Network-Protocol driver (middleware driver) Schematic of the Network Protocol driver The JDBC type 3 driver, also known as the Pure Java driver for database middleware, is a database driver implementation which makes use of a middle tier between the calling program and the database.

References
References

Thanks to device drivers, most software programs don't need to know how to work directly with hardware, and a driver doesn't need to include a full application experience for users to interact with. Instead, the program and driver simply need to know how to interface with each other.

source: lifewire.com
See Also
See Also

It is challenging to give a single precise definition for the term driver. In the most fundamental sense, a driver is a software component that lets the operating system and a device communicate with each other. For example, suppose an application needs to read some data from a device.

image: forbes.com
Type 1
Type 1

That's all about difference between type 1, 2, 3, and type 3 JDBC driver in Java. JDBC drivers are evolved in Java from less portable to most portable and from low performance to high performance. Type 1 JDBC driver is the oldest while type 4 JDBC driver is the latest.

source: java67.com
Type 1: JDBC-ODBC Bridge Driver
Type 1: JDBC-ODBC Bridge Driver

The JDBC-ODBC Bridge that comes with JDK 1.2 is a good example of this kind of driver. Type 2: JDBC-Native API In a Type 2 driver, JDBC API calls are converted into native C/C++ API calls, which are unique to the database.

image: javaken.com
Type 2
Type 2

User-mode drivers execute in user mode, and they typically provide an interface between a Win32 application and kernel-mode drivers or other operating system components. For example, in Windows Vista, all printer drivers execute in user mode.

Type 2: Java + Native Code Driver
Type 2: Java + Native Code Driver

The Java program connects directly to the database, meaning that if there is a problem, it will be captured entirely within the JVM of the program making the connection (type 1, it's in the ODBC layer, type 2 it's in the native compiled code, type 3 it's in the remote network proxy).

Type 2: Partial Java Driver
Type 2: Partial Java Driver

Type 1: JDBC-ODBC bridge; Type 2: partial Java driver; Type 3: pure Java driver for database middleware; Type 4: pure Java driver for direct-to-database; Type 5: highly-functional drivers with superior performance; For most applications, the best choice is a pure Java driver, either Type 3, Type 4, or even Type 5.

source: progress.com
Type 2: Partial Java Driver
Type 2: Partial Java Driver

Type 1 drivers are used for testing JDBC applications against an ODBC data source. Type 2 drivers require a native database API to be used. Both Type 1 and Type 2 mix a Java-based API with another API. The following figure shows a side-by-side comparison of the implementation of each JDBC driver type.

source: progress.com
Type 3
Type 3

Intermediate drivers, such as a virtual disk, mirror, or device-type-specific class driver. Intermediate drivers depend on support from underlying lower-level drivers. Intermediate drivers are subdivided further as follows:

Type 3 Driver Network-Protocol Driver (Middleware Driver)
Type 3 Driver Network-Protocol Driver (Middleware Driver)

Type 3 driver – Network-Protocol driver (middleware driver) The JDBC type 3 driver, also known as the Pure Java driver for database middleware, is a database driver implementation which makes use of a middle tier between the calling program and the database.

Type 3: JDBC-Net Pure Java
Type 3: JDBC-Net Pure Java

In a Type 4 driver, a pure Java-based driver communicates directly with the vendor's database through socket connection. This is the highest performance driver available for the database and is usually provided by the vendor itself.

image: way2java.com
Type 3: Pure Java Driver for Database Middleware
Type 3: Pure Java Driver for Database Middleware

For most applications, the best choice is a pure Java driver, either Type 3, Type 4, or even Type 5. Type 5 drivers (such as DataDirect Connect for JDBC drivers) offer advanced functionality and superior performance over other driver types.

source: progress.com
Type 4: All Java Driver
Type 4: All Java Driver

The type-2 drivers again use a Java (JDBC) API; however, they bridge the calls into a C or C++ style shared library, which then handles the real connection. If the driver is optimized to be so fast that the JNI setup / tear down calls are negligible in cost, then perhaps it might outperform type-4 drivers.

Type 4: Pure Java Driver for Direct-to-Database
Type 4: Pure Java Driver for Direct-to-Database

Type Four Driver: Direct-to-database pure Java driver. This style of driver converts JDBC calls into a network protocol that sends the converted packets--in a proprietary format--to be used directly by DBMSs, thus allowing a direct call from the client machine to the DBMS server and providing a practical solution for intranet access.

Type 5: Highly-Functional Drivers With Superior Performance
Type 5: Highly-Functional Drivers With Superior Performance

Type 1: JDBC-ODBC bridge Type 2: partial Java driver Type 3: pure Java driver for database middleware Type 4: pure Java driver for direct-to-database Type 5: highly-functional drivers with superior performance For most applications, the best choice is a pure Java driver, either Type 3, Type 4, or ...

source: progress.com
image: yescarts.com
Type 5: Highly-Functional Drivers With Superior Performance
Type 5: Highly-Functional Drivers With Superior Performance

Type 1: JDBC-ODBC bridge Type 2: partial Java driver Type 3: pure Java driver for database middleware Type 4: pure Java driver for direct-to-database Type 5: highly-functional drivers with superior performance For most applications, the best choice is a pure Java driver, either Type 3, Type 4, or ...

source: progress.com

Related Types