The inductor is a wire shaped so that the magnetic field will be much stronger. The reason an inductor works the way it does is because of this magnetic field. This field does some magic physics stuff that resists alternating currents.
An integrated circuit (IC), sometimes called a chip or microchip, is a semiconductor wafer on which thousands or millions of tiny resistors, capacitors, and transistors are fabricated. An IC can function as an amplifier, oscillator, timer, counter, computer memory, or microprocessor.
How transistors work is probably the hardest concept for you to understand as a beginner. At least it was for me. The problem is that almost everyone is trying to teach that a transistor is “…a semiconductor device”. And instead of just telling you what it does, they explain that “…it consists of n-doped and p-doped materials”.