Acyclovir is an antiviral drug, a synthetic nucleoside analogue, that has inhibitory activity (interferes with viral replication) against the herpes viruses, including herpes simplex 1 and 2 (cold sores and genital herpes), varicella-zoster (shingles and chickenpox), and Epstein-Barr virus (mononucleosis).
Vaccines can prevent the childhood viruses that used to cause encephalitis. Therefore, these types of encephalitis are rare today. Some childhood viruses that can cause encephalitis include: chicken pox (very rare) measles; rubella; Arboviruses. Arboviruses are viruses carried by insects. The type of arbovirus that’s transmitted depends on the insect.
Human Enterovirus 71 (HEV71) and brainstem encephalitis. HEV71 is a type of enterovirus that can cause large outbreaks of hand-foot-mouth disease (HFMD) and, in some children, meningitis, acute flaccid paralysis and a severe brainstem encephalitis with high mortality (death).
Herpesviral encephalitis is encephalitis due to herpes simplex virus. Herpes simplex encephalitis (HSE) is a viral infection of the human central nervous system. It is estimated to affect at least 1 in 500,000 individuals per year and some studies suggest an incidence rate of 5.9 cases per 100,000 live births.
Herpes Simplex virus encephalitis Herpes simplex encephalitis is a type of infectious encephalitis which happens when herpes simplex virus (HSV) enters the brain. Usually, it begins with ‘flu-like’ symptoms followed by neurological deterioration, which may include personality and behavioural changes, seizures, weakness and difficulties in communication.
Treatment of rabies. Although, there is one survival case, presently, there is no successful treatment if the patient has developed symptoms of the illness. Care in hospital for a patient with rabies encephalitis consist of sedation, keeping the patient free from physical pain and emotional support in a quiet room.