Hypospadias and epispadias are congenital defects of the urinary tract. This means they occur during intrauterine development. There is no genetic basis for the defects. Specific causes for hypospadias are not known. This means that blood relatives do not have increased chances of developing them.
Epispadias is a rare congenital (present at birth) abnormality that involves the opening of the urethra (the tube from which urine exit the bladder). In boys with epispadias, the urethra opens in top of the penis rather than the tip. The space between this opening and tip of the penis appears like an open book (gutter). In girls with epispadias, the urethral opening is towards the clitoris or even belly area. This results in the external genitalia and urethra not forming or functioning well.
Tying off the artery: When a ruptured artery causes priapism, a doctor will do an operation to tie it off, called surgical ligation. This is also for high-flow priapism. Surgical shunt: It’s passageway that a surgeon creates in the penis to allow the blood to drain.