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Types of Fallacies

Ad Hominem
Ad Hominem

Ad Hominem. Ad Hominem Definition. Ad hominem is a Latin word that means “against the man.” As the name suggests, it is a literary term that involves commenting on or against an opponent, to undermine him instead of his arguments.

Ad Homniem Attacking the Person Rather Than the Argument
Ad Homniem Attacking the Person Rather Than the Argument

Ad hominem (Latin for "to the man" or "to the person"), short for argumentum ad hominem, is a fallacious argumentative strategy whereby genuine discussion of the topic at hand is avoided by instead attacking the character, motive, or other attribute of the person making the argument, or persons associated with the argument, rather than attacking the substance of the argument itself.

Ad Ignorantum
Ad Ignorantum

I. Argumentum ad Ignorantiam: (appeal to ignorance) the fallacy that a proposition is true simply on the basis that it has not been proved false or that it is false simply because it has not been proved true. This error in reasoning is often expressed with influential rhetoric.

Ad Populum Bandwagon
Ad Populum Bandwagon

Argumentum ad populum. In argumentation theory, an argumentum ad populum (Latin for "argument to the people") is a fallacious argument that concludes that a proposition is true because many or most people believe it: "If many believe so, it is so.".

Affirming the Consequent
Affirming the Consequent

(also known as: converse error, fallacy of the consequent, asserting the consequent, affirmation of the consequent) New Terminology: Consequent: the propositional component of a conditional proposition whose truth is conditional; or simply put, what comes after the “then” in an “if/then” statement.

image: youtube.com
Argument From Authority
Argument From Authority

The appeal to authority is a fallacy in argumentation, but deferring to an authority is a reliable heuristic that we all use virtually every day on issues of relatively little importance. There is always a chance that any authority can be wrong, that’s why the critical thinker accepts facts provisionally.

Argument From Ignorance or Non-Testable Hypothesis
Argument From Ignorance or Non-Testable Hypothesis

Argument from Ignorance; Argument from Incredulity; ... Hypothesis Contrary to Fact; The Fallacies: ... is not considered a fallacy, ...

Band Wagon
Band Wagon

Bandwagon is a fallacy based on the assumption that the opinion of the majority is always valid: that is, everyone believes it, so you should too. Also called appeal to popularity, authority of the many, and argumentum ad populum (Latin for "appeal to the people").

source: thoughtco.com
Begging the Question
Begging the Question

Begging the Question. petitio principii. (also known as: assuming the initial point, assuming the answer, chicken and the egg argument, circulus in probando, circular reasoning [form of], vicious circle) Description: Any form of argument where the conclusion is assumed in one of the premises.

image: churchm.ag
Begging the Question or Circular Argument
Begging the Question or Circular Argument

Begging the Question. petitio principii. (also known as: assuming the initial point, assuming the answer, chicken and the egg argument, circulus in probando, circular reasoning [form of], vicious circle) Description: Any form of argument where the conclusion is assumed in one of the premises.

Dogmatism
Dogmatism

Dogmatism: The Art of Not Thinking Example 1 The Definition When we assume or assert that a particular position is the only possible acceptable one.

source: prezi.com
Drake's List of The Most Common Logical Fallacies
Drake's List of The Most Common Logical Fallacies

The non sequitur is a broad, categorical term, and so there are many different types of non sequitur fallacies, including post hoc, hasty generalization, slippery slope, affirming the consequent and simply faulty assumption or warrant.

Either or Fallacy
Either or Fallacy

An either-or fallacy is a logical fallacy that occurs when someone presents a limited number of options and ignores other viable alternatives. Usually, the speaker wants the audience to believe one of the options.

source: reference.com
Evasion
Evasion

Variation: Distraction can be a form of avoiding the issue, but does not have to be just verbal. For example, being asked a question you can’t answer and pretending your phone rings, saying you need to use the restroom, faking a heart attack, etc.

False Analogy
False Analogy

When an analogy is used to prove or disprove an argument, but the analogy is too dissimilar to be effective, that is, it is unlike the argument more than it is like the argument.

False Cause (Cause and Effect)
False Cause (Cause and Effect)

I. False Cause: the fallacy committed when an argument mistakenly attempt to establish a causal connection. There are two basic interrelated kinds. Post hoc ergo propter hoc: (literally "after this, therefore because of this") the fallacy of arguing that one event was caused by another event merely because it occurred after that event.

Hasty Generalization
Hasty Generalization

(also known as: argument from small numbers, statistics of small numbers, insufficient statistics, argument by generalization, faulty generalization, hasty induction, inductive generalization, insufficient sample, lonely fact fallacy, over generality, overgeneralization, unrepresentative sample)

Logical Fallacies Errors in Reasoning That Invalidate the Argument
Logical Fallacies Errors in Reasoning That Invalidate the Argument

A logical fallacy is an error in reasoning that renders an argument invalid. Also called a fallacy, an informal logical fallacy, and an informal fallacy. In a broad sense, all logical fallacies are nonsequiturs—arguments in which in which a conclusion doesn't follow logically from what preceded it.

source: thoughtco.com
Post Hoc, Ergo Propter Hoc (False Cause)
Post Hoc, Ergo Propter Hoc (False Cause)

There are two basic interrelated kinds. Post hoc ergo propter hoc: (literally "after this, therefore because of this") the fallacy of arguing that one event was caused by another event merely because it occurred after that event. I.e., mere succession in time is not enough to establish causal connection.

Red Herring
Red Herring

Red herring is a kind of fallacy that is an irrelevant topic introduced in an argument to divert the attention of listeners or readers from the original issue. In literature, this fallacy is often used in detective or suspense novels to mislead readers or characters or to induce them to make false conclusions.

Slippery Slope
Slippery Slope

In informal logic, slippery slope is a fallacy in which a course of action is objected to on the grounds that once taken it will lead to additional actions until some undesirable consequence results. Also known as the slippery slope argument and the domino fallacy.

source: thoughtco.com
Straw Man
Straw Man

Straw man is a fallacy in which an opponent's argument is overstated or misrepresented in order to be more easily attacked or refuted.

source: thoughtco.com