Endurance exercise is one of the four types of exercise along with strength, balance and flexibility. Ideally, all four types of exercise would be included in a healthy workout routine and AHA provides easy-to-follow guidelines for endurance and strength-training in its Recommendations for Physical Activity in Adults.
Balance exercises are especially important for older adults to incorporate into their exercise routine. Examples of balance exercises include: Walking backwards or sideways; Walking heel to toe in a straight line; Standing on one leg at a time; Standing from a sitting position; Both lower body and core muscle strength training also help improve balance.
Dynamic stretching is important to increase range of motion, core temperature, and nervous system activity, all of which prepare your body for enhanced movement. Dynamic flexibility can be used for a warm-up or, if time is short, it can be a workout in itself.
Flexibility is the range of motion in a joint or group of joints or the ability to move joints effectively through a complete range of motion. Flexibility training includes stretching exercises to lengthen the muscles and may include activities like yoga or Tai Chi. Improving your flexibility can help you move more comfortably throughout the day.
Isometric stretching is even more effective than active stretching or passive stretching. Isometric stretches help to develop strength in the target muscles and seems to decrease the amount of pain usually associated with stretching. Static-active flexibility is also increased due to the use of muscular contractions.
Flexibility or limberness refers to the range of movement in a joint or series of joints, and length in muscles that cross the joints to induce a bending movement or motion. Flexibility varies between individuals, particularly in terms of differences in muscle length of multi-joint muscles.
Passive stretching is also referred to as relaxed stretching, and as static-passive stretching. A passive stretch is one where you assume a position and hold it with some other part of your body, or with the assistance of a partner or some other apparatus.
Proprioceptive Neuromuscular Facilitation (PNF) is a more advanced form of flexibility training that involves both the stretching and contraction of the muscle group being targeted. PNF stretching was originally developed as a form of rehabilitation, and to that effect it is very effective.
Static Stretching Exercises. Research work by McNair (2000) and Knudson (2001) suggests that the use of static stretches are more appropriate for the cool down. By contrast, dynamic stretches - slow controlled movements through the full range of motion - are the most appropriate exercises for the warm up.