All-purpose flour weighs about 4.5 ounces per cup while cake flour weights about 4 ounces per cup. What? Wait a minute. Everyone knows that 1 cup is 8 ounces, so how can 1 cup of all-purpose flour be only 4.5 ounces? This is a common area of confusion, so let’s clear it up. If you fill a 1 cup dry measuring cup with water, it will weigh 8 ounces. But flour weighs less than water, so 1 dry measuring cup of all-purpose flour only weighs 4.5 ounces.
Editor: Bread flour has more protein content than all-purpose, which helps with gluten development. Some recipes call for it when an especially chewy and elastic crumb is desired. You'll notice some difference in crumb and texture with breads made with each flour, but the flours can generally be ...
Buckwheat flour is flour ground from Fagopyrum esculentum, known more casually as buckwheat. It has a rich, nutty flavor and a very high nutritional value, making it popular in many nations, especially in Asia. In addition, this flour is gluten free, leading people with gluten intolerance to seek it out as a flour alternative.
Chiffon and angel food cake are two great examples of where cake flour really shines. The primary difference between cake flour and all-purpose (AP) flour is the protein content (which becomes gluten). The protein content of cake flour is about 8%, while the protein content of AP flour is slightly higher.
For most intents and purposes, you're safe using pastry and cake flour interchangeably. You can also generally use AP flour for either pastry or bread flour. If all you have is AP flour, you can approximate cake and pastry flour by adding 2 tablespoons of corn starch to a scant cup of AP flour. Likewise, you can bump up a flour's protein content (and it's gluten potential) by adding a few tablespoons of vital wheat gluten.
Gluten is a protein present in wheat flour, which is widely used in commercial and homemade baked goods. Gluten is also found in flour made from barley, rye, spelt, and triticale, a cross between wheat and rye. Gluten helps dough to rise and lends shape and a chewy texture to baked goods.
If all you have is AP flour, you can approximate cake and pastry flour by adding 2 tablespoons of corn starch to a scant cup of AP flour. Likewise, you can bump up a flour's protein content (and it's gluten potential) by adding a few tablespoons of vital wheat gluten.
Rye grain is used for flour, rye bread, rye beer, crisp bread, some whiskeys, some vodkas, and animal fodder. It can also be eaten whole, either as boiled rye berries or by being rolled, similar to rolled oats. Rye is a cereal grain and should not be confused with ryegrass, which is used for lawns, pasture, and hay for livestock.
Fine ground semolina flour ,ground from the endosperm of durum wheat, is used to make pasta and some breads, coarser semolina is used to make couscous when mixed together with fine grain semolina ( although it can also be made with barley wheat in the manner of the Berbers.)