In a basement, the crack between the basement’s slab floor and the foundation wall is an open invitation for water to intrude. This gap is intentionally designed to act as a control joint to prevent cracks from forming in the center of the floor. For this reason, the concrete floor is poured in a separate process after the basement walls are built.
A concrete masonry unit (CMU) is a standard size rectangular block used in building construction. Those that use cinders (fly ash or bottom ash) are called cinder blocks in the United States, breeze blocks (breeze is a synonym of ash) in the United Kingdom, and hollow blocks in the Philippines.
This foundation involves wood posts or concrete piers set deep into the ground that bear the weight of the building. A pier and beam foundation does not rest directly on the ground, instead it is elevated about 18” above, with utility units for plumbing and electricity installed in this crawlspace.
footing like spread footing, strip footing, cantilever footing and combined footing while it may also be called as raft whenspread over a wide base, reinforced foundation pad if geosynthetics are used: whereas the term foundation includes , both shallow and deep foundations, which may or may not involve footing as a structure like microples, well foundations, caissons etc.
Shallow Foundations; Deep Foundations; According to Karl von Terzaghi, a foundation is shallow if its depth is equal to or less than its width. Foundations constructed by open excavation are also called shallow foundations. The term footing is used in conjunction with shallow foundations commonly.