The aggressive-readiness clusters are used by professional models to give the impression that their clothing is for the modem, aggressive, forward-thinking woman. Occasionally the gesture may be done with only one hand on the hip and the other displaying another gesture (Figure 99).
Body Language or Body Movements (Kinesics) Body movements include gestures, posture, head and hand movements or whole body movements. Body movements can be used to reinforce or emphasise what a person is saying and also offer information about the emotions and attitudes of a person.
A gesture is a form of non-verbal communication or non-vocal communication in which visible bodily actions communicate particular messages, either in place of, or in conjunction with, speech. Gestures include movement of the hands, face, or other parts of the body.
It might be questioned whether the category of manipulative gesture is a gesture at all and if so whether it should be regarded along the same lines as deictic and iconic gestures. Another possibility is to consider the manipulative gesture as glue between attentional device and communicative gestures.
Paralinguistics, says Shirley Weitz, "sets great store on how something is said, not on what is said" (Nonverbal Communication, 1974). Paralanguage includes accent, pitch, volume, speech rate, modulation, and fluency. Some researchers also include certain non-vocal phenomena under the heading of paralanguage: facial expressions, eye movements, hand gestures, and the like.
A passive-aggressive person is likely to nod in agreement when you're face-to-face. But lurking just below that phony smile you’ll find seething hostility. The incongruence between what you see on the outside and what’s actually bubbling on the inside, makes managing a passive-aggressive person a bit complicated.
Don't worry, let me explain: Proxemics is the name of the study that explains how people treat their space and other people in their proximity. It's a subcategory of our nonverbal communication. It's a subcategory of our nonverbal communication.
Dominant and submissive gestures are polar opposites, both by definition, and in terms of the body language that is used to indicate it. For example, appearing larger by throwing an arm over the back of the chair and spreading the legs open is dominant, whereas appearing smaller by pulling the limbs inward or hunching the back is submissive. This phenomenon is a good rule of thumb, so keep it in mind while reading this chapter and the people around you.